Plasma amino acid profiles in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease

Yu Tamura, Hiroshi Ohta, Yumiko Kagawa, Tatsuyuki Osuga, Keitaro Morishita, Noboru Sasaki, Mitsuyoshi Takiguchi

J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33:1602–1607.

Background

Lymphocytic‐plasmacytic enteritis is the common form of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in dogs. In human IBD, disturbances of amino acid metabolism have been demonstrated to be involved in the pathophysiology of IBD. Therefore, plasma amino acid profile might represent a novel marker of human IBD.

Objectives

To determine the plasma amino acid profiles of dogs with IBD and its usefulness as a novel marker of IBD in dogs.

Animals

Fasting blood plasma was obtained from 10 dogs with IBD and 12 healthy dogs.

Methods

All IBD dogs were prospectively included in this study, and heparinized blood samples were collected. The plasma concentrations of 21 amino acids were determined using the ninhydrin method. The relationships among the plasma amino acid concentrations and plasma C‐reactive protein (CRP) concentration, canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index (CCECAI), and overall World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) score were investigated.

Results

Median concentration (nmol/mL) of methionine [46.2; range, 30.0‐59.3], proline [119.4; range, 76.7‐189.2], serine [115.1; range, 61.4‐155.9], and tryptophan [17.4; range, 11.9‐56.3]) were significantly lower than in control dogs [62.6; range, 51.0‐83.6, 199.1; range, 132.5‐376.7, 164.3; range, 124.7‐222.9, and 68.3; range, 35.7‐94.8, respectively]. A negative correlation was identified between the plasma serine concentration and CCECAI (r s = −.67, P = .03), but there were no correlations between plasma amino acid concentrations and CRP concentration or overall WSAVA score.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

Plasma serine concentration might represent a novel maker of IBD in dogs.

 

Fecal shortchain fatty acid concentrations and dysbiosis in dogs with chronic enteropathy

Yasushi Minamoto, Tomomi Minamoto, Anitha Isaiah, Panpicha Sattasathuchana, Agostino Buono, Venkat R. Rangachari, Isaac H. McNeely, Jonathan Lidbury, Jörg M. Steiner, Jan S. Suchodolski

J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33:1608–1618.

Background

Accumulating evidence shows an important relationship between the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota and host health. Microbial metabolites are believed to play a critical role in host‐microbial interactions. Short‐chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are major end products of bacterial carbohydrate fermentation in the intestinal tract. Decreased concentrations of SCFAs have been observed in humans with GI disease. However, large‐scale clinical data in dogs are lacking.

Hypothesis/Objective

To evaluate fecal concentrations of SCFAs and the fecal microbiota in healthy control (HC) dogs and dogs with chronic enteropathy (CE).

Animals

Forty‐nine privately owned HC dogs and 73 dogs with CE.

Methods

Prospective cohort study. Fecal concentrations of SCFAs were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Illumina sequencing and quantitative real‐time polymerase chain reaction were utilized to evaluate the fecal microbiota.

Results

Fecal concentrations (median [range] μmol/g of dry matter) of acetate were lower (P = .03) in dogs with CE (185.8 [20.1‐1042.1]) than in HC dogs (224.0 [87.7‐672.8]). Propionate were also lower (P < .001) in dogs with CE (46.4 [0.4‐227.9]) than in HC dogs (105.9 [1.6‐266.9]). Moreover, total SCFAs were lower (P = .005) in dogs with CE (268.1 [21.8‐1378.2]) than in HC dogs (377.2 [126.6‐927.0]). Dysbiosis in dogs with CE was characterized by decreased bacterial diversity and richness, distinct microbial community clustering compared with that in HC dogs, and a higher dysbiosis index.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

Dogs with CE had an altered fecal SCFA concentration accompanied by significant changes of the fecal microbiota.

 

Randomized, controlled, crossover trial of prevention of antibioticinduced gastrointestinal signs using a synbiotic mixture in healthy research dogs

Jacqueline C. Whittemore, Tamberlyn D. Moyers, Joshua M. Price

J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33:1619–1626.

Background

Synbiotics decrease antibiotic‐associated gastrointestinal signs (AAGS) in cats, but data supporting synbiotic use to ameliorate AAGS in dogs are lacking.

Objectives

To determine if administration of synbiotics mitigates AAGS in dogs.

Animals

Twenty‐two healthy research dogs.

Methods

Randomized, double‐blinded, placebo‐controlled, 2‐way, 2‐period, crossover study with an 8‐week washout period. Each period included a 1‐week baseline and 3‐week treatment phase. Dogs received enrofloxacin (10 mg/kg PO q24h) and metronidazole (12.5 mg/kg PO q12h), followed 1 hour later by a bacterial/yeast synbiotic combination or placebo. Food intake, vomiting, and fecal score were compared using repeated‐measures crossover analyses, with P < .05 considered significant.

Results

Hyporexia, vomiting, and diarrhea occurred in 41% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21‐64), 77% (95% CI, 55‐92), and 100% (95% CI, 85‐100) of dogs, respectively, during the first treatment period. Derangements in food intake were smaller in both periods for dogs receiving synbiotics (F‐value, 5.1; P = .04) with treatment‐by‐period interactions (F‐value, 6.0; P = .02). Days of vomiting differed over time (F‐value, 4.7; P = .006). Fecal scores increased over time (F‐value, 33.5; P < .001), were lower during period 2 (F‐value, 14.5; P =.001), and had treatment‐by‐period effects (F‐value, 4.8; P = .04).

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

Enrofloxacin/metronidazole administration is associated with a high frequency of AAGS. Synbiotic administration decreases food intake derangements. The presence of milder AAGS in period 2 suggests that clinical effects of synbiotics persist >9 weeks after discontinuation, mitigating AAGS in dogs being treated with antibiotics followed by placebo.

 

Association of the canine ATP7A and ATP7B with hepatic copper accumulation in Dobermann dogs

Xiaoyan Wu, Paul J. J. Mandigers, Adrian L. Watson, Ted S. G. A. M. van den Ingh, Peter A. J. Leegwater, Hille Fieten

J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33:1646–1652

Background

Hepatic copper accumulation causes chronic hepatitis in dogs. Mutations in the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B were, respectively, associated with attenuation and enhancement of hepatic copper concentrations in Labrador Retrievers. There is a predisposition of Dobermanns to hepatitis with increased hepatic copper concentrations.

Objectives

To investigate whether the ATP7A:c.980C>T and ATP7B:c.4358G>A mutations identified in Labrador Retrievers were associated with hepatic copper concentrations in Dobermanns.

Animals

Dobermanns from the Netherlands (n = 122) and the United States (n = 78).

Methods

In this retrospective study, mutations in ATP7A and ATP7B were investigated as risk factors for hepatic copper accumulation in Dobermanns. Liver biopsies of 200 Dobermanns were evaluated by histochemical copper staining, quantitative copper measurement, or both modalities. ATP7A and ATP7B genotypes were obtained by Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR. A linear regression model was used to investigate an association between genotype and hepatic copper concentrations.

Results

The ATP7A:c.980C>T was identified in both Dutch (2 heterozygous individuals) and American Dobermanns. In the American cohort, the minor allele frequency of the mutation was low (.081) and a possible effect on hepatic copper concentrations could not be established from this data set. A significant association of the ATP7B:c.4358G>A variant with increased hepatic copper concentrations in Dobermanns was observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

The ATP7B:c.4358G>A variant could be a contributor to hepatic copper accumulation underlying the risk of development of copper‐associated hepatitis in breeds other than the Labrador Retriever.

 

Interleukin‐13 and interleukin33 mRNA are underexpressed in the duodenal mucosa of German Shepherd dogs with chronic enteropathy

Aarti Kathrani, Victor Lezcano, Edward J. Hall, Albert E. Jergens, Yeon‐Jung Seo, Jonathan P. Mochel, Todd Atherly, Karin Allenspach

J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33:1660–1668.

Background

A recent genome‐wide association study in German Shepherd dogs (GSDs) with chronic enteropathy (CE) has identified polymorphisms in the Th2 cytokine genes.

Hypothesis/objective

To determine if the expression of the Th2 cytokines, interleukin‐13 (IL‐13) and interleukin‐33 (IL‐33), is altered in the duodenal mucosa of GSDs with CE compared to non‐GSDs with CE and healthy dogs.

Animals

Twenty client‐owned dogs diagnosed with CE (10 GSDs and 10 non‐GSDs) at the Bristol Veterinary School and 8 healthy Beagle dogs from the Iowa State University Service Colony.

Methods

Retrospective study using archived paraffin‐embedded duodenal biopsy samples. A novel RNA in situ hybridization technology (RNAscope) was used to hybridize IL‐13 and IL‐33 mRNA probes onto at least 10 sections from duodenal biopsy samples for each dog. RNAscope signals were visualized using a microscope and semi‐quantitative assessment was performed by a single operator.

Results

Based on duodenal villus, subvillus, epithelial, and lamina propria average expression scores, GSDs with CE had significantly lower IL‐13 and IL‐33 mRNA expression compared to non‐GSDs with CE (IL‐13, P < .04; IL‐33, P < .02) and healthy Beagle dogs (IL‐13, P < .02; IL‐33, P < .004).

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

Similar to human patients with ulcerative colitis, a subtype of human inflammatory bowel disease, these data indicate that Th2 cytokines may be involved in the pathogenesis of CE in GSDs.

 

Lymphatic endothelial cell immunohistochemical markers for evaluation of the intestinal lymphatic vasculature in dogs with chronic inflammatory enteropathy

Sara A. Wennogle, Simon L. Priestnall, Alejandro Suárez‐Bonnet, Sirikul Soontararak, Craig B. Webb

J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33:1669–1676.

Background

Lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) immunohistochemical markers have identified intestinal lymphatic vasculature abnormalities in humans with inflammatory bowel disease, but have not been used to evaluate intestinal lymphatic vasculature in a group of dogs with chronic inflammatory enteropathy (CIE).

Objectives

To utilize LEC markers to identify and measure intestinal lymphatic vasculature in endoscopic biopsy samples of CIE dogs. To evaluate whether measured lymphatic vasculature variables correlate with serum albumin concentrations.

Animals

Twenty‐four dogs with CIE; n = 13, serum albumin concentration <2.5 g/dL (CIE‐protein‐losing enteropathy [PLE]), n = 11, serum albumin concentration ≥2.5 g/dL (CIE‐N).

Methods

Prospective study. Lymphatic endothelial cell immunolabeling with Prox‐1 and LYVE‐1 performed on endoscopic biopsy samples from 24 dogs with CIE. Duodenal and ileal villous lacteal width (VLW) and proprial mucosal lacteal width (MLW) were determined for each case and analyzed for correlation with serum albumin concentration. Lacteal dilatation scores using routine H&E histopathology were assessed for correlation with immunohistochemistry (IHC)‐calculated VLW and MLW.

Results

Lower serum albumin concentrations were correlated with increased VLW (rho = −.4644; P = .02) and MLW (rho = −.6514; P < .001) in the ileum. Lymphatic endothelial cell IHC identified presumptive proprial mucosal lymphangiectasia in some dogs that was not recognized with routine H&E staining. Lacteal dilatation scores were correlated with VLW in duodenum (rho = .4634; P = .02) and ileum (rho = .5292; P = .008), but did not correlate with MLW.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

Lymphatic endothelial cell immunolabeling identified presumptive proprial mucosal lymphangiectasia in CIE dogs, particularly in the ileum of hypoalbuminemic dogs. Routine evaluation of villous lacteals likely underestimates abnormalities of the lymphatic vasculature in dogs with CIE.

 

Retrospective analysis of esophageal imaging features in brachycephalic versus nonbrachycephalic dogs based on videofluoroscopic swallowing studies

Caroline Eivers, Rocio Chicon Rueda, Tiziana Liuti, Silke Salavati Schmitz

J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33:1740–1746.

Background

Idiopathic esophageal dysmotility (ED) is increasingly recognized in young dogs of brachycephalic breeds. Few studies have objectively associated specific videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) features with brachycephaly, leading to under‐recognition of ED in brachycephalic breeds.

Hypothesis/objectives

To describe and compare VFSS in brachycephalic dogs versus non‐brachycephalic dogs presented for dysphagia or regurgitation, and to investigate associations between these imaging findings and patient signalment.

Methods

Retrospective analysis of VFSS of dogs presented for dysphagia or regurgitation (not megaesophagus) from 2006 to 2017. Cases were divided into brachycephalic and mesaticephalic breeds. The VFSS were reviewed using a standardized protocol by 2 examiners. Esophageal motility was assessed using specific criteria, and particular imaging features were noted and graded. Fisher's exact test was used to determine associations among signalment (including brachycephaly), final diagnosis, outcomes, and ED features.

Results

Thirty‐six dogs were included (n = 10 normal, n = 26 presumed ED). Twenty dogs (77%) with presumed ED were brachycephalic with a median age of 1 year (range, 0.2‐10.5 years). Most common were prolonged esophageal transit time (ETT; n = 21/26), decreased propagation of secondary peristaltic waves (n = 20/26), and gastroesophageal reflux (GER; n = 18/28). Eight dogs (all brachycephalic) had hiatal herniation (HH). Morphological esophageal variations were only observed in brachycephalic dogs. Brachycephaly was significantly associated with ED (P = .005), prolonged ETT (P = .41), GER (P = .02), and HH (P = .03).

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

The majority of dogs with presumed ED was young and brachycephalic and had specific abnormalities that were less frequent in mesaticephalic dogs with regurgitation or dysphagia.

 

Clinical effect of probiotics in prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal disease in dogs: A systematic review

Anders P. Jensen, Charlotte R. Bjørnvad

J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33:1849–1864.

Background

Gastrointestinal diseases are prevalent in dogs, and probiotics could provide safe alternatives to conventional treatments.

Objective

To evaluate the clinical effects of probiotics when used in the prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal disease in dogs compared with no treatment, only symptomatic treatment, or conventional treatment.

Methods

A systematic review was preformed searching AGRICOLA, AGRIS, CAB Abstracts, Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, and Web of Science to identify articles published before April 1, 2017. Selection criteria were original research report, those published in peer reviewed journal, and study investigating in vivo use of probiotic for prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal disease in dogs. Studies were rated based on the level of evidence, and methodological quality was evaluated by the following variables: similarities between groups at baseline, risk of bias, and study group size.

Results

One hundred sixty‐five studies were identified, of which 17 met the inclusion criteria—12 concerned acute gastrointestinal disease and 5 concerned chronic gastrointestinal disease. The level of evidence ranged between randomized controlled studies and crossover uncontrolled trials; estimated risk of bias was generally moderate to high; and sample sizes were small. Feces consistency was the most frequently evaluated clinical variable.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

The current data point toward a very limited and possibly clinically unimportant effect for prevention or treatment of acute gastrointestinal disease. For chronic gastrointestinal disease, dietary intervention remains the major key in treatment, whereas probiotic supplement seems not to add significant improvement. However, studies were often underpowered, underscoring the need for future larger, preferably multicenter studies.

 

Treatment of congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts in dogs: A systematic review and metaanalysis

Gonçalo Serrano, Marios Charalambous, Nausikaa Devriendt, Hilde de Rooster, Femke Mortier, Dominique Paepe

J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33:1865–1879.

Background

Several options have been proposed for the treatment of congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (cEHPSS) in dogs, but formal comparisons among different treatment options are currently unavailable. A previous evidence‐based review (2012) found low quality of evidence for papers assessing the treatment of cEHPSS in dogs.

Objectives

To assess the quality of evidence available in the treatment of cEHPSS, summarize the current state of knowledge with respect to outcome after cEHPSS management, and compare different treatment techniques.

Animals

Not used.

Methods

A bibliographic search was performed without date or language restrictions. Studies were assessed for quality of evidence (study design, study group sizes, subject enrollment quality, and overall risk of bias) and outcome measures reported (perioperative outcome, clinical outcome, and surgical or interventional outcome), all reported with 95% confidence intervals. A network meta‐analysis was performed.

Results

Forty‐eight studies were included. Six retrospective studies (grade 4b) compared 2 techniques and 7 were abstracts (grade 5). The quality of evidence was low and risk of bias high. Regarding surgical outcome, statistically significant superiority of ameroid constrictor over thin film band was observed (P = .003). No other comparisons were statistically significant.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

The evidence base of choice of treatment of cEHPSS in dogs remains weak despite recent publications on the subject. Ameroid is superior to thin film band in causing EHPSS closure. Blinded randomized studies comparing different treatment modalities, which routinely include postoperative imaging to assess cEHPSS closure and acquired portosystemic shunt development are essential.

 

Videofluoroscopic swallow study features of lower esophageal sphincter achalasialike syndrome in dogs

Megan E. Grobman, James Schachtel, C. Prakash Gyawali, Teresa E. Lever, Carol R. Reinero

J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33:1954–1963.

Background

Megaesophagus (ME) carries a poor long‐term prognosis in dogs. In people, lower esophageal sphincter (LES) disorders causing functional obstruction are rare causes of ME that may respond to targeted treatment. Functional LES disorders are reported rarely in dogs because of challenges in diagnostic methodologies.

Hypothesis/Objectives

To identify dogs with videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) features of LES achalasia‐like syndrome (LES‐AS). We hypothesized that dogs with LES‐AS could be distinguished from normal dogs using standardized VFSS criteria.

Animals

Dogs with LES‐AS by VFSS (n = 19), healthy normal dogs (n = 20).

Methods

Retrospective study. One‐hundred thirty dogs presented to the University of Missouri Veterinary Health Center (MU‐VHC) between April 2015 and December 2017 for a free‐feeding VFSS; 20 healthy dogs were included as controls. Swallow studies were evaluated for failure of the LES to relax during pharyngeal swallow (LES‐AS). Affected dogs subsequently were evaluated using standardized criteria to identify metrics important for identifying and characterizing dogs with LES‐AS.

Results

Nineteen dogs with LES‐AS were identified out of 130 VFSS. Megaesophagus was present in 14 of 19 (73.7%) dogs with LES‐AS. A baseline esophageal fluid‐line and “bird beak” were present in 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.5%‐89.3%) and 63.2% (95% CI, 41.5%‐84.8%) of affected dogs, respectively. The esophagus was graded as acontractile (8/19), hypomotile (8/19), or hypermotile (3/19).

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

Dogs with LES‐AS may successfully be identified by VFSS using a free‐feeding protocol. These data are of critical clinical importance because a subpopulation of dogs with functional LES obstruction may be candidates for targeted intervention.

 

Use of video capsule endoscopy to identify gastrointestinal lesions in dogs with microcytosis or gastrointestinal hemorrhage

Kasey Mabry, Tracy Hill, Stanley L. Marks, Brian T. Hardy

J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33:1964–1969.

Background

Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a noninvasive imaging modality that can identify mucosal lesions not detected with traditional endoscopy or abdominal sonography. In people, VCE is used in diagnostic and management protocols of various gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, particularly in GI bleeding of obscure origin or unexplained iron deficiency anemia (IDA).

Objective

To evaluate the utility of VCE in the identification of mucosal lesions in dogs with evidence of GI hemorrhage.

Animals

Sixteen client‐owned dogs that underwent VCE.

Methods

Retrospective case‐control study. Medical records were reviewed to include dogs with microcytosis, low normal mean corpuscular volume, or clinical GI bleeding that received VCE.

Results

Median age of dogs was 8.7 years (range, 8 months to 15 years) with a median weight of 21.7 kg (range, 6.9‐62.5 kg). Abdominal ultrasound (16), abdominal radiography (4), and abdominal CT (1) did not identify a cause for GI blood loss. Gastric mucosal lesions were identified by VCE in 15 of 16 dogs and small intestinal lesions in 12 of 14 dogs, with 2 capsules remaining in the stomach. Endoscopy was performed in 2 dogs before VCE; 1 dog had additional small intestinal lesions identified through the use of VCE.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

Video capsule endoscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic tool that can identify GI lesions in dogs presenting with microcytosis with or without GI hemorrhage when ultrasonography is inconclusive; however, the majority of lesions identified would have been apparent with conventional endoscopy.

 

Clinical findings, diagnostic test results, and treatment outcome in cats with hiatal hernia: 31 cases (19952018)

Heidi Phillips, Jessica Corrie, Danielle M. Engel , Daniel J. Duffy, David E. Holt Allison R. Kendall, Chad W. Schmiedt, Autumn Vetter, Ilyssa L. Meren, Christelle Follette, David J. Schaeffer, Philipp D. Mayhew, Stanley L. Marks

J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33:1970–1976.

Background

Information regarding clinical signs, assessment, treatment, and outcome in cats with hiatal hernia (HH) is limited.

Objectives

To characterize the clinical presentation of HH and medical and surgical outcomes in a cohort of affected cats.

Animals

Thirty‐one client‐owned cats with HH.

Methods

Medical records of cats with HH were retrospectively reviewed for signalment, history, results of diagnostic tests, details of surgical and medical treatments, complications, and outcome. Long‐term follow‐up data were obtained by telephone communication. Relationships between clinical variables and outcome were evaluated by regression analysis.

Results

Type I HH was present in 85.7% (24/28) of cats, and 64.5% (20/31) were >3 years of age at diagnosis. Twenty‐one of 31 (67.7%) cats underwent surgical repair including phrenoplasty, esophagopexy, and left‐sided gastropexy, and 10 of 31 cats were treated medically without surgery. Concurrent illness was common, and 77.4% cats had comorbidities. All cats survived to discharge, and median time to death or follow‐up was 959 days (range, 3‐4015 days). Cats treated medically survived longer than cats treated surgically, with median time to death or follow‐up of 2559 and 771 days, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

Type I HH is the most common type of HH in cats. A congenital etiology is possible, but many cats with HH were >3 years of age at diagnosis and suffered from comorbidities, including upper airway obstruction. Case selection and the presence of comorbidities likely influenced the outcome. Cats with HH may not be diagnosed until disease is advanced or concurrent illness draws attention to clinical signs.

 

Clinical, clinicopathologic, and gastrointestinal changes from aspirin, prednisone, or combination treatment in healthy research dogs: A doubleblind randomized trial

Jacqueline C. Whittemore, Allison P. Mooney, Joshua M. Price, John Thomason

J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33:1977–1987.

Background

Dogs with immune‐mediated disease are often coadministered glucocorticoids and aspirin, but ulcerogenic effects of current protocols are unknown.

Objectives

To compare gastrointestinal changes among dogs administered aspirin, prednisone, and combination treatment.

Animals

Twenty‐four healthy research dogs.

Methods

Double‐blinded, placebo‐controlled randomized trial of dogs administered placebo, aspirin (2 mg/kg q24h), prednisone (2 mg/kg q24h), or combination treatment PO for 28 days. Clinical signs were recorded daily, with laboratory work performed at baseline and day 28. Gastrointestinal mucosal hemorrhages, erosions, and ulcers were numerated for endoscopic studies performed on days 0, 14, and 28; endoscopic mucosal lesion scores were calculated. Results were compared using mixed model repeated‐measures analyses of variance and generalized estimating equation proportional odds models. P < .05 was considered significant.

Results

Gastric mucosal lesion scores differed by treatment‐by‐time (F[6, 40] = 4.4, P = .002), treatment (F[3, 20] = 7.1, P = .002), and time (F[2, 40] = 18.9, P < .001). Post hoc analysis revealed increased scores in the aspirin (day 14 only), prednisone, and prednisone/aspirin groups during treatment. Ulcers were identified on 14 studies, representing 10 dogs. Dogs receiving prednisone and prednisone/aspirin had 11.1 times (95% CI, 1.7‐73.6) and 31.5 times (95% CI, 3.5‐288.0) higher odds, respectively, of having endoscopic mucosal lesion scores ≥4 than dogs receiving placebo (P ≤ .01).

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

Gastrointestinal bleeding occurs commonly in dogs administered aspirin, prednisone, or prednisone/aspirin treatment, with higher lesion scores for dogs receiving combination treatment. Even severe lesions are not accompanied by clinical signs.

 

Evaluation of the effect of a famotidine continuous rate infusion on intragastric pH in healthy dogs

Katherine Hedges, Adesola Odunayo, Josh M. Price, Silke Hecht, M. Katherine Tolbert

J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33:1988–1994.

Background

Famotidine is sometimes administered as a continuous rate infusion (CRI) to treat gastrointestinal ulceration in critically ill dogs. However, clinical studies have not evaluated the efficacy of a famotidine CRI in dogs.

Hypothesis/Objectives

To evaluate the efficacy of famotidine at raising intragastric pH when it is administered as a CRI in dogs. We hypothesized that CRI treatment with famotidine would meet clinical goals for raising intragastric pH ≥3 and 4.

Animals

Nine healthy Beagle dogs.

Methods

Randomized 2‐way crossover. All dogs received 1.0 mg/kg IV q12h famotidine or CRI famotidine at 1.0 mg/kg IV loading dose and 8.0 mg/kg/d for 3 consecutive days. Beginning on day 0 of treatment, intragastric pH monitoring was used to continuously record intragastric pH. Mean percentage times (MPTs) for which intragastric pH was ≥3 and ≥4 were compared between groups using analysis of variance.

Results

There was a statistically significant difference (P < .05) in MPT ≥3 and ≥4 between the CRI and IV q12h groups on all treatment days. On days 1, 2, and 3, the MPTs ± SD for which pH was ≥3 were 92.1 ± 8.5, 96.3 ± 6.2, and 90.0 ± 15.7 for the CRI treatment group and 49.3 ± 27.3, 42.2 ± 19.6, and 45.8 ± 10.1, respectively, for the twice‐daily group.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

These results suggest that a famotidine CRI, but not standard doses of famotidine, achieves the clinical goals established in people to promote healing of gastric tissue injury and offers an alternative to intravenous treatment with proton pump inhibitors in dogs.

 

Comparison of clinical, clinicopathologic, and histologic variables in dogs with chronic inflammatory enteropathy and low or normal serum 25hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations

Sara A. Wennogle, Simon L. Priestnall, Alejandro Suárez‐Bonnet, Craig B. Webb

J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33:1995–2004.

Background

The cause of low serum vitamin D concentrations in dogs with chronic inflammatory enteropathy (CIE) is not well understood.

Objective

Improve understanding of pathogenesis of low serum vitamin D concentrations in dogs with CIE by comparing several clinical, clinicopathologic, and histologic variables between CIE dogs with low and normal serum 25‐hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (25[OH]D).

Animals

Fifteen dogs with CIE and low serum 25[OH]D concentrations; 15 dogs with CIE and normal serum 25(OH)D concentrations.

Methods

Prospective cohort study. Clinical and clinicopathologic variables were compared between groups. Correlations between serum 25(OH)D concentration and histopathologic variables were assessed.

Results

Dogs with CIE and low serum 25(OH)D concentrations had higher canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index scores (P = .003), lower serum α‐tocopherol (P < .001), cholesterol (P < .001), and albumin (P < .001) concentrations and higher serum C‐reactive protein (P = .004) concentrations compared to CIE dogs with normal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Serum concentrations of vitamin D‐binding protein (VDBP) were not different between groups (P = .91). Duodenal morphologic and inflammatory histopathological scores (P = .002 and P = .004, respectively) and total histopathological scores in duodenum and combined duodenum and ileum negatively correlated with serum 25(OH)D concentration.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

The pathogenesis of low serum vitamin D concentrations in dogs with CIE is likely multifactorial. Fat malabsorption deserves further study in dogs with low serum vitamin D concentration and CIE. Loss of VDBP does not appear to be an important cause of low serum vitamin D concentration in dogs with CIE.

 

Diagnostic features, treatment, and outcome of dogs with inflammatory proteinlosing enteropathy

Silke Salavati Schmitz, Adam Gow, Nick Bommer, Linda Morrison, Richard Mellanby

J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33:2005–2013.

Background

Protein‐losing enteropathy (PLE) because of chronic inflammatory enteropathy (CIE) in dogs is often treated with a combination of glucocorticoids and second‐line immunosuppressant (SLI). This combined approach might not be necessary in all dogs.

Hypothesis/objectives

To describe diagnostic features and outcomes of dogs with PLE treated with glucocorticoids alone (group P) or with glucocorticoids and SLI (group S).

Animals

Thirty‐one dogs with PLE.

Material and methods

Retrospective analysis of signalment data from diagnostic procedures, treatment, and outcome of dogs with CIE/PLE (from 2015 to 2017), using the hospital's digital case database. Dogs with hypoalbuminemia and CIE were included. Because of a stepwise treatment algorithm, dogs were allocated to group P or S. Time to serum albumin concentrations ≥20 g/L and survival data were collected. Dogs were additionally categorized by their albumin and cobalamin serum concentrations. Multivariate and univariate analysis as well as Pearson's correlation and Kaplan‐Maier survival analysis were performed.

Results

Seventeen dogs were included in group P and 14 in group S. World Small Animal Veterinary Association score of the duodenum was different between groups (P = .05), but none of the other examined data. Median time until serum albumin reached >20 g/L was 13 days. Median survival time after start of treatment was 85 days (range, 13‐463 days) in group P and 166 days (range, 8‐390 days) in group S.

Conclusion and Clinical Importance

No routine diagnostic test was predictive of clinical response, treatment group, or outcome. Glucocorticoid treatment alone can be appropriate in dogs with PLE.

 

Esophagostomy tube complications in dogs and cats: Retrospective review of 225 cases

Olivia Nathanson, Kathryn McGonigle, Kathryn Michel, Darko Stefanovski, Dana Clarke

J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33:2014–2019.

Background

Esophagostomy feeding tubes (E‐tubes) are an essential tool for management of hyporexic patients' acute and chronic nutritional requirements. Despite their routine use, limited information is available regarding E‐tube complications, especially in the recent veterinary literature.

Objective

To provide an updated descriptive account of E‐tube complications in cats and dogs, and to evaluate potential prognostic factors to determine if certain patients are at increased risk for complications.

Animals

One hundred two dogs and 123 cats.

Methods

Retrospective study evaluating patients that had E‐tubes placed between March 2014 and March 2017.

Results

One hundred patients (44.4%) experienced a complication related to tube placement, with a similar complication rate among dogs (43.1%) and cats (45.5%). Twenty‐two cats (17.8%) and 14 dogs (13.7%) developed signs of infection at the E‐tube site, with 5 cats (22.7%) and 5 dogs (35.7%) requiring surgical debridement. Regurgitation of food through the E‐tube stoma was noted in 7 dogs and 1 cat. Three patients were euthanized as a result of tube‐related complications.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

We have provided an updated descriptive review of complications associated with E‐tube placement in a large population of dogs and cats at a tertiary referral center. Although E‐tubes are essential tools that generally are safe and well tolerated, several complications can occur. We did not identify any specific factors that increase patient risk for these complications, and therefore it is important that all patients are closely monitored and clients are educated to pursue prompt veterinary assessment when such complications arise.

 

Retrospective evaluation of cyclosporine in the treatment of presumed idiopathic chronic hepatitis in dogs

Tarini Ullal, Yoko Ambrosini, Sangeeta Rao, Cynthia R. L. Webster, David Twedt

J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33:2046–2056.

Background

The etiology of idiopathic chronic hepatitis (ICH) in dogs is poorly understood, but evidence supports an immune‐mediated pathogenesis in some dogs.

Objectives

To describe a case series of dogs with presumed ICH treated with cyclosporine (CsA) with or without concurrent medications and to document the incidence of biochemical remission and factors associated with failure to attain remission.

Animals

Forty‐eight client‐owned dogs diagnosed with presumed ICH, treatment of which included CsA.

Methods

Two‐institution, retrospective case series of dogs between 2010 and 2017. All dogs were treated with CsA with or without concurrent medications for ≥2 weeks. Data were collected from medical records.

Results

Biochemical remission (<1.1 times the upper limit of normal for alanine aminotransferase activity) was attained in 79% of dogs (38/48). Median dose of CsA at remission was 7.9 mg/kg/d (range, 2.5‐12.7 mg/kg/d) and median time to remission was 2.5 months (range, 0.75‐18 months). Concurrent hepatoprotectant treatment was not associated with likelihood of remission. Clinical score, ascites, hypoalbuminemia, hyperbilirubinemia, prolonged coagulation times, dose, and duration of treatment were not associated with the probability of remission or time to remission. Common adverse effects of CsA were gastrointestinal signs in 38% (18/48) and gingival hyperplasia in 25% (12/48) of treated dogs.

Conclusion and Clinical Importance

A treatment regimen including CsA and frequent hepatoprotectant use resulted in biochemical remission of ICH in most dogs. None of the evaluated factors, including hepatoprotectant use, were significantly associated with likelihood of remission. Future prospective studies are indicated to evaluate CsA monotherapy in ICH dogs.

 

Longterm impact of tylosin on fecal microbiota and fecal bile acids of healthy dogs

Alison C. Manchester, Craig B. Webb, Amanda B. Blake, Fatima Sarwar, Jonathan A. Lidbury, Jörg M. Steiner, Jan S. Suchodolski

J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33:2605–2617.

Background

Tylosin is commonly prescribed to dogs with diarrhea. Orally administered antibiotics may alter the intestinal microbiota, which is responsible for crucial key bile acid (BA) biotransformation reactions.

Objectives

To prospectively evaluate the impact of tylosin administration on fecal microbiota and unconjugated bile acids (UBAs) over time.

Animals

Sixteen healthy adult dogs.

Methods

Prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial. Dogs were randomized to receive 20 mg/kg of tylosin or a placebo capsule PO q12h for 7 days while undergoing daily fecal scoring. Fecal samples were collected on days 0, 7, 21, and 63. The microbiota was assessed using quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Unconjugated BAs were assessed using gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS).

Results

Fecal scores were unchanged during placebo and tylosin administration. In the placebo group, no significant changes were observed in fecal microbiota or UBA concentrations. Day 7 samples from tylosin‐exposed dogs exhibited decreased bacterial diversity (observed species, Chao1, Shannon, P < .001) characterized by decreases in anaerobes Fusobacteriaceae (linear discriminant analysis [LDA] score, 5.03) and Veillonellaceae (LDA score, 4.85). Primary UBA concentrations were increased at day 21 (median, [range]; 7.42, [0.67‐18.77]μg/kg; P = .04) and day 63 (3.49 [0‐28.43]μg/kg; P = .02) compared to day 0 (.14 [.03‐1.19] μg/kg) in dogs receiving tylosin. At day 63, bacterial taxa were not significantly different compared to day 0, but the extent of microbial recovery was individualized.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

Tylosin causes fecal dysbiosis in healthy dogs with corresponding shifts in fecal UBAs. Changes did not uniformly resolve after discontinuation of tylosin.

 

Clinical, clinicopathologic, and gastrointestinal changes from administration of clopidogrel, prednisone, or combination in healthy dogs: A doubleblind randomized trial

Jacqueline C. Whittemore, Allison P. Mooney, Joshua M. Price, John Thomason

J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33:2618–2627.

Background

Dogs with immune‐mediated disease often receive glucocorticoids with clopidogrel, but ulcerogenic effects of current protocols are unknown.

Hypothesis/Objectives

To compare gastrointestinal endoscopic findings among dogs administered clopidogrel, prednisone, and combination treatment.

Animals

Twenty‐four healthy research dogs.

Methods

Double‐blinded, placebo‐controlled randomized trial. Dogs received placebo, clopidogrel (2–3 mg/kg q24h), prednisone (2 mg/kg q24h), or prednisone with clopidogrel PO for 28 days. Attitude, food intake, vomiting, and fecal score were determined daily. Clinicopathologic testing was performed at baseline and on day 28. Gastrointestinal hemorrhages, erosions, and ulcers were numerated by 2 blinded investigators for endoscopies performed on days 0, 14, and 28, and endoscopic mucosal lesion scores were calculated. Results were compared using mixed model, split‐plot repeated measures ANOVAs and generalized estimating equation proportional odds models as appropriate. P < .05 was considered significant.

Results

Clinical signs of gastrointestinal bleeding were not noted. Endoscopic mucosal lesion scores differed significantly by group (F[3, 20] = 12.8, P < .001) and time (F[2, 40] = 8.3, P < .001). Posthoc analysis revealed higher lesion scores in the prednisone‐receiving groups (P ≤ .006 for each) and on day 14 (P ≤ .007 for each). Ulcers were identified in 4 dogs administered prednisone and 3 dogs administered prednisone/clopidogrel. Odds of having endoscopic mucosal lesion scores ≥4 were 7‐times higher for dogs in prednisone (95%CI 1.1, 43.0; P = .037) and prednisone‐clopidogrel (95%CI 1.1, 43.4; P = .037) groups than those in the placebo group.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

Gastrointestinal bleeding and ulceration occur commonly in healthy dogs administered prednisone or prednisone/clopidogrel treatment, but not clopidogrel monotherapy. Though lesions are severe in many cases, they are not accompanied by clinical signs.

 

Effect of probiotic Enterococcus faecium SF68 on liver function in healthy dogs

Rosario Lucena, Manuel Novales, Beatriz Blanco, Eduardo Hernández, Pedro José Ginel

J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33:2628–2634.

Background

Probiotics are widely used in dogs but can be associated with alterations in some serum biochemistry test results.

Objective

To assess the effect of Enterococcus faecium SF68 administration for 14 days on serum alanine transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in healthy dogs.

Animals

Thirty‐six healthy privately owned neutered dogs were randomly allocated, stratified by sex, to control or probiotic groups. Dogs were clinically healthy, with normal physical examination findings, blood, urine, and fecal analyses and ultrasonographic examinations.

Method

In this blinded, controlled study E. faecium SF68 was administered to the probiotic group for 14 days. Blood samples were taken from all dogs at days 0, 14, and 28. Serum ALT and ALP activity and total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were determined on these 3 days.

Results

The probiotic induced no significant changes in mean ALT and ALP activity. Mean cholesterol concentration did not change during probiotic administration but a significant decrease was seen on day 28 (P < .01). Mean triglyceride concentration increased progressively, becoming significant at day 28 (P < .05), with 1 dog developing hypertriglyceridemia.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

E. faecium SF68 would not create confusion when monitoring dogs with hepatobiliary disease because ALT and ALP activity did not change significantly. A significant decrease in cholesterol and significant increase in triglyceride concentrations were seen at day 28 but were not clinically relevant, with 1 dog showing hypertriglyceridemia. A longer trial is warranted to assess if the probiotic effects could be clinically relevant and to assess its potential use in hypertriglyceridemic dogs.

 

Ki67/CD3 ratio in the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory enteropathy in dogs

Sonja Karlovits, Anita Manz, Karin Allenspach, Ingrid Walter, Stefan Kummer, Alexander Tichy, Barbara Richter, Iwan A. Burgener, Nicole Luckschander‐Zeller

J Vet Intern Med. 2020;34:92–97.

Background

T cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory enteropathy (CIE) in dogs. Cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) antigen serves as a marker for T cells. In human medicine, Ki‐67 is an indicator for cell growth but there are only a few studies in dogs with CIE.

Objective

To investigate Ki‐67 in relation to T cells as a marker for CIE in dogs.

Animals

Eleven dogs with CIE and 6 healthy beagle controls (CO).

Methods

Retrospective case‐control study. Dogs were clinically assessed by the Canine Chronic Enteropathy Clinical Activity Index (CCECAI). Duodenal mucosal biopsy samples were endoscopically obtained for histopathologic examination by means of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association score. Double‐labeled immunofluorescence was used to investigate colocalization of Ki‐67 and CD3 in epithelium and lamina propria (LP) of villi and crypts.

Results

Dogs with CIE had significantly higher clinical score (median, 5.0; interquartile range [IQR], 3‐7) compared to CO (all 0; P < .001). The Ki‐67/CD3 double‐positive cells were significantly increased in the LP of the crypt region of CIE dogs (0.63 cells/mm2; IQR, 0‐0.54) versus CO (0.08 cells/mm2; IQR, 0‐0.26; P = .044). A significant correlation was found between CCECAI and the Ki‐67/CD3 ratio in the LP of the crypt region (r = 0.670; P = .012) in dogs with CIE.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

The Ki‐67/CD3 ratio is upregulated in the LP crypt region of dogs with CIE and it correlates with clinical severity. Therefore, Ki‐67/CD3 could be a useful tool for detection of CIE.

 

Metronidazole treatment of acute diarrhea in dogs: A randomized double blinded placebocontrolled clinical trial

Daniel K. Langlois, Amy M. Koenigshof, Rinosh Mani

J Vet Intern Med. 2020;34:98–104.

Background

Metronidazole is commonly administered to dogs with acute diarrhea, but there is limited evidence to support this practice.

Objective

To investigate the effects of metronidazole administration on dogs with acute nonspecific diarrhea.

Animals

Thirty‐one dogs, including 14 test population dogs and 17 controls.

Methods

Randomized controlled clinical trial. Dogs with acute diarrhea in which causation was not determined by routine fecal diagnostic testing were randomly assigned to metronidazole treatment (10‐15 mg/kg PO q12h for 7 days) or placebo. Fecal cultures and characterization of Clostridium perfringens isolates also were performed. Owners maintained medication and fecal scoring logs, and fecal diagnostic tests were repeated on day 7.

Results

The mean ± SD time to resolution of diarrhea for test population dogs (2.1 ± 1.6 days) was less than that for controls (3.6 ± 2.1 days, P = .04). Potential relationships of C. perfringenswith acute diarrhea pathogenesis were not investigated, but only 3 of 13 (23.1%) test population dogs had persistent C. perfringens carriage at day 7, which was less than the 11 of 14 (78.6%) controls with persistent growth (P = .007).

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

Our results suggest that metronidazole treatment can shorten duration of diarrhea and decrease fecal culture detection of C. perfringens in some dogs with acute nonspecific diarrhea. Additional studies are needed to assess the benefits and risks of routine use of metronidazole for this purpose because most dogs achieve resolution of diarrhea within several days regardless of treatment.

 

Colonic impaction in dogs: a retrospective study of 58 cases (1996 to 2014)

E. Tzimtzimis, L. Papazoglou, M. Patsikas, V. Tsioli, V. Kouti, A. Konstantinidis, T. Rallis

Journal of Small Animal Practice (2019) 60, 444–449

Objectives

To describe the clinical findings, management and outcome of colonic impaction in dogs and report the effectiveness of medical treatment.

Materials and Methods

Case records of 58 dogs with colonic impaction were reviewed. Telephone contact with the owners was used to obtain long‐term outcome.

Results

Twenty‐nine dogs (50%) were mixed‐breed, and 45 (78%) were entire males. Median age at presentation was 7 years, and median bodyweight was 22 kg. The degree of radiographic colonic distension did not appear to be related to long‐term outcome. Fifty‐five dogs (95%) received medical treatment including enemas alone, hyperosmotic and/or bulk‐forming and/or lubricant laxatives, enemas combined with laxatives or enemas and/or laxatives combined with manual evacuation of faecal material under anaesthesia. Median survival time of the 58 dogs was 2 years. Overall, 36 of 41 dogs with available long‐term follow‐up had a favourable outcome.

Clinical Significance

Medical treatment of colonic impaction in dogs with a single agent or a combination of agents has a high success rate. Marked colonic dilation is not necessarily indicative of megacolon in dogs.

 

Endoscopic retrieval of gastric and oesophageal foreign bodies in 52 cats

V. Dollo, G. Chambers, M. Carothers

Journal of Small Animal Practice (2020) 61, 51–56

Objectives

To assess the outcomes and major complications in cats that require oesophageal and gastric endoscopic foreign body removal.

Materials and Methods

The medical records of 52 cats with oesophageal and gastric foreign bodies that underwent endoscopic foreign body retrieval during a 13‐year period (2006 to 2018) were retrospectively reviewed to characterise the clinical and radiographic signs, endoscopic findings, outcomes and major complications.

Results

Endoscopic foreign body retrieval was successful in 49 of the 52 cats (94.2%). Radiographs confirmed the foreign material in 24 of the 50 cats (48%). Major complications occurred in eight of the 52 cats (15.4%) and included pleural effusion (n=2), aspiration pneumonia (n=2), unsuccessful removal of foreign material with endoscopy (n=3), oesophageal stricture formation (n=3) and cardiopulmonary arrest (n=1). Cats with oesophageal foreign bodies were more likely to experience major complications than those with gastric foreign bodies.

Clinical Significance

Endoscopic foreign body removal in cats was associated with good overall outcomes and a low complication rate in this study sample. These results will help veterinarians better understand the outcomes of endoscopic foreign body removal in cats.

 

Evaluation of minimally invasive small intestinal exploration and targeted abdominal organ biopsy with use of a wound retraction device in dogs: 27 cases (2010–2017)

Shelly K. Shamir DVM; Ameet Singh DVM, DVSc; Philipp D. Mayhew BVM&S; Jeffrey J. Runge DVM; J. Brad Case DVM, MS; Michele A. Steffey DVM; Ingrid M. Balsa MEd, DVM; William T. N. Culp VMD; Michelle A. Giuffrida VMD; Jessica J. Kilkenny MSc and Alex zur Linden DVM1

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2019;255:78–84

OBJECTIVE

To describe surgical technique, biopsy sample quality, and short-term outcome of minimally invasive small intestinal exploration and targeted abdominal organ biopsy (MISIETB) with use of a wound retraction device (WRD) in dogs.

ANIMALS

27 client-owned dogs that underwent MISIETB with a WRD at 1 of 4 academic veterinary hospitals between January 1, 2010, and May 1, 2017.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were retrospectively reviewed, and data collected included signalment; medical history; findings from physical, ultrasonographic, laparoscopic, cytologic, and histologic evaluations; surgical indications, procedures, duration, and complications; and short-term (14-day) outcomes. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to evaluate the normality of continuous variables, and descriptive statistics were calculated for numeric variables.

RESULTS

Laparoscopic exploration was performed through a multicannulated single port (n = 18), multiple ports (5), or a single 6-mm cannula (4). Median length of the incision for WRD placement was 4 cm (interquartile [25th to 75th percentile] range, 3 to 6 cm). All biopsy samples obtained had sufficient diagnostic quality. The 2 most common histologic diagnoses were lymphoplasmacytic enteritis (n = 14) and intestinal lymphoma (5). Twenty-five of 27 (93%) dogs survived to hospital discharge, and 3 (12%) dogs had postsurgical abnormalities unrelated to surgical technique.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that MISIETB with WRD was an effective method for obtaining diagnostic biopsy samples of the stomach, small intestine, pancreas, liver, and mesenteric lymph nodes in dogs. Prospective comparison between MISIETB with WRD and traditional laparotomy for abdominal organ biopsy in dogs is warranted.

 

Evaluation of the effectiveness of preoperative administration of maropitant citrate and metoclopramide hydrochloride in preventing postoperative clinical gastroesophageal reflux in dogs

Ciaran T. Jones MVB, MRCVS, MS and Boel A. Fransson DVM, PhD

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2019;255:437–445

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the prophylactic effectiveness of preoperative administration of maropitant citrate and metoclopramide hydrochloride in preventing postoperative clinical gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in dogs and to identify risk factors for clinical postoperative GER in dogs.

ANIMALS

93 client-owned dogs undergoing surgery at the Washington State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital between March 2016 and February 2017.

PROCEDURES

Dogs were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (preoperatively received maropitant and metoclopramide) or the control group (did not preoperatively receive maropitant and metoclopramide). After surgery, all dogs were recovered and monitored, and occurrences of GER were noted. The prophylactic effectiveness of maropitant and metoclopramide was evaluated, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify variables associated with postoperative clinical GER in dogs.

RESULTS

No meaningful difference in the incidence of clinical GER during the postoperative period was detected between the control and intervention groups. Results indicated that variables associated with significantly increased odds of postoperative clinical GER included the male sex (OR, 9.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26 to 195.0), an overweight BCS (OR, 12.3; 95% CI, 2.1 to 135.1), gastrointestinal surgery (OR, 30.5; 95% CI, 3.0 to 786.9), and requirement for a dexmedetomidine constant rate infusion after surgery (OR, 9.6; 95% CI, 1.3 to 212.5).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings indicated that incidence of clinical GER during the postoperative period was not lower for dogs that received preoperative prophylactic administration of metoclopramide and maropitant, compared with incidence dogs that did not receive the prophylactic treatment. Further research is required into alternative measures to prevent postoperative clinical GER in dogs.

 

Use of the Health Belief Model to identify factors associated with owner adherence to elimination diet trial recommendations in dogs

Meagan R. Painter DVM; Tiffany Tapp DVM and Julia E. Painter MPH, PhD

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2019;255:446–453

OBJECTIVE

To use the Health Belief Model to identify factors associated with owner adherence to elimination diet trial (EDT) recommendations by veterinarians for dogs with suspected cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFRs).

SAMPLE

192 owners of dogs prescribed an EDT between April 1, 2012, and April 1, 2017.

PROCEDURES

Owners of dogs prescribed an EDT to diagnose CAFRs were identified through review of medical records from a single veterinary dermatology specialty practice. Identified owners were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey that was developed on the basis of the Health Belief Model. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between potential predictor variables and 100% adherence to EDT recommendations.

RESULTS

665 owners were invited to participate, and 192 (28.9%) completed the survey. Of the 192 respondents, 77 (40.1%) reported 100% adherence to EDT recommendations, and 115 (59.9%) reported < 100% adherence. Results indicated that the odds of owners reporting 100% adherence to EDT recommendations were significantly decreased by owner perception of barriers (adjusted OR [ORa] = 0.86) and were significantly increased by owner knowledge regarding diets and CAFRs in dogs (ORa = 1.30) and by self-efficacy or confidence in performing an EDT as directed (ORa = 1.18).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings indicated that most prescribed EDTs were not followed strictly. Interventions to help owners reduce perceived barriers, increase self-efficacy, and improve related knowledge could improve adherence to EDT recommendations and, thereby, increase the diagnostic utility of EDTs

 

Technique for Evaluation of Gravity-Assisted Esophageal Transit Characteristics in Dogs with Megaesophagus

Jillian M. Haines, DVM, MS, Alison Khoo, DVM, Erin Brinkman, DVM, John M. Thomason, DVM, MS, Andrew J. Mackin, DVSc, BVMS

J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2019; 55:167–177

Movement of food material in the esophagus during upright feeding in dogs with megaesophagus (ME) is poorly characterized. A standardized contrast videofluoroscopy technique was used to evaluate esophageal transit characteristics in dogs with ME while in an upright position. Twelve dogs with ME (congenital, acquired idiopathic, or secondary to myasthenia gravis) were placed in an upright position using Bailey chairs and given liquid barium, canned food meatballs, and their normal diet consistency if different than meatballs. Passage of ingesta was videofluoroscopically evaluated by direct observation and change in ingesta area as determined by manual tracing or barium column product calculations. Significant individual variation was seen. Complete esophageal clearance of liquid was seen in four dogs, and complete clearance of meatballs in three dogs, with a median time of 5 min for both. Two of seven dogs fed a slurry diet had complete clearance by 10 min. No significant difference was found between area calculated via tracing or barium column product. Based on imaging results, alterations in food consistency, duration upright, or medication were recommended for nine dogs. In dogs with ME accustomed to a Bailey chair, contrast videofluoroscopy was technically straightforward and allowed for more specific physician-guided management recommendations.

 

Methods and basic concepts for microbiota assessment

Marcio Costa, J. Scott Weese

The Veterinary Journal 249 (2019) 10–15

There has been a marked increase in interest regarding complex microbial populations in recent years. The methodology used for microbial assessment has drastically changed over the last two decades and continues to advance at a rapid pace. Culture-based studies have been superseded by those based upon molecular methods, which have been largely used to discover new species and to better characterize complex communities, mainly driven by the advances in DNA sequencing, termed ‘next generation sequencing’. These methodologies have allowed for a better understanding of the relationship between hosts and their microbiotas, which have important roles in health maintenance and in the pathophysiology of wide ranging conditions such as obesity, diabetes, allergic diseases and even behavioural changes. While most widely used in humans, these approaches are now commonly used in veterinary research, with increasing interest in direct clinical applications. As these methods provide novel insights that will constitute the basis for the development of new therapeutic and prevention strategies, and as commercial efforts to offer microbiota assessment as a clinical tool expand, it is essential for researchers and clinical veterinarians to understand and have the tools to be able to interpret research performed in this new fascinating field. The objective of this review is to describe some of the most common methods for characterization of microbial communities and to provide an overview of the basic concepts necessary for good interpretation of the research performed in this field.

 

Duodenal expression of antimicrobial peptides in dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal lymphoma

M.Nakazawa, S.Maeda, M.Omori, K. Kaji, N.Yokoyama, T.Nakagawa, J.K.Chambers, K.Uchida, K.Ohno, T.Yonezawa, N.Matsuki

The Veterinary Journal 249 (2019) 47–52

Although antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play an integral role in the regulation of intestinal microbiota and homeostasis, their expression in canine gastrointestinal diseases, including idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and intestinal lymphoma, remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the intestinal expression of AMPs in dogs with IBD or intestinal lymphoma. IBD was diagnosed in 44 dogs, small cell intestinal lymphoma in 25 dogs, and large cell intestinal lymphoma in 19 dogs. Twenty healthy beagles were used as normal controls. Duodenal mRNA expression of six representative AMPs ― lactoferrin, lysozyme, cathelicidin, secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (SLPI), bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI), and canine beta defensin (CBD103) ― was quantified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

The relative expression of BPI, lactoferrin, and SLPI was significantly higher in dogs with IBD and intestinal lymphomas than in healthy controls. Interestingly, the expression patterns of AMPs differed between dogs with IBD and those with intestinal lymphomas, especially small cell lymphoma. Increased expression of BPI differentiated IBD from dogs with small cell intestinal lymphoma, with a sensitivity of 93.2%, a specificity of 100%, and an area under the curve of 0.955. These results suggest that the expression patterns of AMP aid in the diagnosis of canine IBD and intestinal lymphoma, although it remains uncertain whether the altered AMP expression is the cause or effect of mucosal inflammation.