Determining optimal therapy of dogs with chronic enteropathy by measurement of serum citrulline

Magda Gerou‐Ferriani, Rhiannon Allen, Peter‐John M. Noble, Alexander J. German, Marco Caldin, Daniel J. Batchelor

J Vet Intern Med. 2018;32:993–998.

Background

Serum concentration of citrulline is a useful biomarker in human intestinal disease and indicates globally reduced enterocyte mass and absorptive function in various disease states.

Objectives

To determine whether serum citrulline concentration is a biomarker in chronic enteropathy (CE) in dogs, to provide useful information regarding optimal treatment or to predict outcome.

Animals

Seventy‐four dogs with CE and 83 breed‐ and age‐matched hospital controls with no clinical signs of intestinal disease.

Methods

Retrospective study. Outcome was determined and dogs were categorized by response to treatment as having food‐responsive enteropathy (FRE), antibiotic‐responsive diarrhea (ARD), or idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Disease severity was quantified by the CIBDAI scoring index.

Results

Serum citrulline concentration did not differ between dogs with CE (median, 8.4 µg/mL, 5th‐95th percentile 2.0‐19.6) and controls (median, 8.1 µg/mL, 5th‐95th percentile 2.2‐19.7, P = .91). Serum citrulline concentration was similar between dogs with FRE (median, 9.1 µg/mL, 5th‐95th percentile 2.0‐18.9), ARD (median, 13.0 µg/mL, 5th‐95th percentile 1.6‐19.2), IBD (median, 8.4 µg/mL, 5th‐95th percentile 2.1‐21.0; P = .91). Serum citrulline did not correlate to CIBDAI or to serum albumin concentration.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

In our study, serum citrulline concentration was not associated with efficacy of treatment or outcome in dogs with CE.

 

Serologic and fecal markers to predict response to induction therapy in dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease

Cristiane C. Otoni, Romy M. Heilmann, Mercedes García‐Sancho, Angel Sainz, Mark R. Ackermann, Jan S. Suchodolski, Jörg M. Steiner, Albert E. Jergens

J Vet Intern Med. 2018;32:999–1008

Background

Little information is available of markers that assess the disease course in dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Objectives

Evaluate relationship between disease severity and serum and fecal biomarkers in dogs with idiopathic IBD before and after treatment.

Animals

Sixteen dogs with idioptahic IBD and 13 healthy dogs.

Methods

Prospective case control study. Canine IBD activity index (CIBDAI) clinical score, serum concentrations of C‐reactive protein (CRP), perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA), and serum and fecal canine calprotectin (cCP) were measured before and after 21 days of treatment.

Results

Serum CRP (median 3.5 mg/L; range: 0.1‐52.4 mg/L), fecal cCP (median 92.3 μg/g; range: 0.03‐637.5 μg/g), and CIBDAI scores significantly increased in dogs with IBD before treatment compared with serum CRP (median 0.2 mg/L; range: 0.1‐11.8 mg/L; P < .001), fecal cCP (median 0.67 μg/g; range: 0.03‐27.9 μg/g; P < .001) and CIBDAI (P < .001) after treatment. No significant associations between CIBDAI scores and before or after treatment serum biomarkers. There was a significant association between fecal cCP and CIBDAI scores before treatment (rho = 0.60, P = .01). CRP and fecal cCP significantly decreased after treatment (median 3.5 mg/L v. 0.2 mg/L; P < .001 and 92.3 μg/g v. 0.67 μg/g; P = .001, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

Our data indicate that measurement of fecal cCP concentration is a useful biomarker for noninvasive evaluation of intestinal inflammation. Dogs with severe signs of GI disease more often have abnormal markers than dogs having less severe disease.

 

Evaluation of potential serum biomarkers of hepatic fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity in dogs with liver disease

Chantel Raghu, Joanne Ekena, John M. Cullen, Craig B. Webb, Lauren A. Trepanier

J Vet Intern Med. 2018;32:1009–1018

Background

Serum interleukin 6 (IL‐6), chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), C‐reactive protein (CRP), and the ratio of aspartate transaminase to alanine transaminase (AST:ALT) have been correlated with fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity in humans with various hepatopathies.

Hypothesis/Objectives

To determine whether increases in serum IL‐6, CCL2, CRP, or AST:ALT were associated with moderate to severe fibrosis or necroinflammatory activity in dogs with various hepatopathies.

Animals

Forty‐four client‐owned dogs with clinical evidence of liver disease and 10 healthy purpose‐bred dogs, all undergoing liver biopsies by laparoscopy or laparotomy.

Methods

Measurement of serum IL‐6, CCL2, CRP, AST, and ALT before scheduled liver biopsy and evaluation of liver histopathology using the METAVIR scoring system used in human medicine, blinded to clinical presentation.

Results

Median serum IL‐6 was approximately twice as high in dogs with high fibrosis scores (15.5 pg/mL; range, 1.4 to 235 pg/mL) compared to dogs with low fibrosis scores (7.6 pg/mL; range, 1.4 to 148.1 pg/mL), with marginal significance (P = .05). Median serum CCL2 was significantly higher in dogs with active necroinflammation (444 pg/mL; range, 144 to 896 pg/mL) compared to dogs without detectable necroinflammation (326 pg/mL; range, 59 to 1692 pg/mL; P = .008), but with considerable overlap between groups. Neither serum CRP nor AST:ALT ratios were significantly different based on fibrosis or necroinflammatory scores.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

Because of substantial variability among dogs, single measurements of IL‐6 and CCL2 have limited diagnostic utility for identifying fibrosis or necroinflammation, respectively, in dogs with various chronic liver diseases. The value of these biomarkers should be explored further in monitoring response to treatment in individual dogs with chronic hepatopathies.

 

Effect of interleukin1β on occludin mRNA expression in the duodenal and colonic mucosa of dogs with inflammatory bowel disease

Misato Ogawa, Hironari Osada, Ayana Hasegawa, Hikaru Ohno, Nanako Yanuma, Kazuaki Sasaki, Minoru Shimoda, Junsuke Shirai, Hirotaka Kondo, Keitaro Ohmor

J Vet Intern Med. 2018;32:1019–1025

Background

Mucosal imbalance of interleukin (IL)‐1β and IL‐1 receptor antagonist (Ra) has been reported in the duodenal mucosa of dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the imbalance in the colonic mucosa and its role in duodenitis and colitis in IBD of dogs remain unclear.

Objectives

To measure the expression of IL‐1β and IL‐1Ra proteins in the colonic mucosa of dogs with IBD, and to determine the effect of IL‐1β on expression of occludin (ocln) mRNA, a tight junction component, in the duodenal and colonic mucosa of dogs with IBD.

Animals

Twelve dogs with IBD and 6 healthy dogs.

Methods

IL‐1β and IL‐1 Ra proteins in the colonic mucosa were quantified by ELISA in 7 of the 12 dogs with IBD. Expression of ocln mRNA in the duodenal and colonic mucosa was examined in the 12 dogs by real‐time PCR.

Results

The ratio of IL‐1β to IL‐1Ra in the colonic mucosa was significantly higher in dogs with IBD than in healthy dogs. The ex vivo experiment determined that IL‐1β suppressed expression of ocln mRNA in the colonic mucosa, but not in the duodenal mucosa, of healthy dogs. Expression of ocln mRNA in the colonic mucosa, but not in the duodenal mucosa, was significantly lower in dogs with IBD than in healthy dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

A relative increase in IL‐1β may attenuate ocln expression, leading to intestinal barrier dysfunction and promotion of intestinal inflammation in the colonic mucosa, but not in the duodenal mucosa, of dogs with IBD.

 

Alterations in serum amino acid concentrations in dogs with proteinlosing enteropathy

Aarti Kathrani, Karin Allenspach, Andrea J. Fascetti, Jennifer A. Larse, Edward J. Hall

J Vet Intern Med. 2018;32:1026–1032

Background

Certain amino acids are decreased in humans with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and supplementation with the same amino acids has shown beneficial effects in animal models of IBD. Currently, the amino acid status of dogs with protein‐losing enteropathy (PLE) is unknown.

Hypothesis/Objective

To determine if serum amino acid concentrations are abnormal in dogs with PLE and correlated with clinical and laboratory variables and outcome.

Animals

Thirty client‐owned dogs diagnosed with PLE and 12 apparently healthy dogs seen at Bristol Veterinary School.

Methods

Retrospective study using stored residual serum from fasted dogs with PLE, collected at the time of diagnostic investigation and from apparently healthy dogs. Serum was analyzed for 30 amino acids using an automated high‐performance liquid chromatography amino acid analyzer.

Results

Serum tryptophan concentrations were significantly decreased in dogs with PLE (median, 22 nmol/mL; range, 1–80 nmol/mL) compared with apparently healthy control dogs (median, 77.5 nmol/mL; range, 42–135 nmol/mL, P < .001). There were no significant differences in the remaining 29 serum amino acids between dogs with PLE and apparently healthy. Serum tryptophan concentrations were also significantly correlated with serum albumin concentrations in dogs with PLE (P = .001, R2 = 0.506).

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

Decreased serum tryptophan concentration might play a role in the pathogenesis of canine PLE or be a consequence of the disease.

 

Prospective longterm evaluation of parenteral hydroxocobalamin supplementation in juvenile beagles with selective intestinal cobalamin malabsorption (ImerslundGräsbeck syndrome)

Peter Hendrik Kook, C. E. Reusch, M. Hersberger

Vet Intern Med. 2018;32:1033–1040

Background

Prospective studies on maintenance treatment for Beagles with hereditary selective cobalamin (Cbl) malabsorption (Imerslund‐Gräsbeck syndrome, IGS) are lacking. In our experience, measurement of methylmalonic acid (MMA), a Cbl‐dependent metabolite, seems more helpful to monitor Cbl status as compared with serum Cbl concentrations.

Objectives

To evaluate a standardized Cbl supplementation scheme in Beagles with IGS. We hypothesized that a single parenteral dose of 1 mg hydroxocobalamin (OH‐Cbl) would maintain clinical and metabolic remission for up to 2 months.

Animals

Six client‐owned juvenile Beagles with genetically confirmed IGS and 28 healthy control dogs.

Methods

Prospective study. Monthly IM OH‐Cbl (1 mg) supplementation was done over a median of 9 months (range, 6‐13) in 6 dogs, followed by bimonthly (every 2 months) injections in 5 dogs over a median of 6 months (range, 3‐10). Health status was assessed by routine clinical examinations at injection time points and owner observations. Voided urine samples were collected immediately before OH‐Cbl injections for measurement of MMA‐to‐creatinine concentrations using a gas‐liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) method.

Results

All dogs were clinically healthy while receiving monthly and bimonthly OH‐Cbl supplementation. Urinary MMA results in healthy dogs ranged from 1.3 to 76.5 mmol/mol creatinine (median, 2.9). Median urinary MMA concentrations did not differ between dogs with IGS receiving monthly (n = 49; 5.3 mmol/mol creatinine; range, 2.3‐50.4) and bimonthly (n = 31; 5.3 mmol/mol creatinine; range, 1.6‐50) injections.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

A maintenance parenteral dose of 1 mg OH‐Cbl monthly or bimonthly appears adequate in Beagles with IGS monitored by metabolic testing.

 

Genomewide based model predicting recovery from portosystemic shunting after liver shunt attenuation in dogs

Lindsay Van den Bossche, Frank G. van Steenbeek, Maarten F. Weber , Bart Spee, Louis C. Penning, Freek J. van Sluijs, Flin Zomerdijk, Marian J. A. Groot Koerkamp, Jan Rothuizen, Iwan A. Burgener, Anne Kummeling

J Vet Intern Med. 2018;32:1343–1352

Background

In dogs with congenital portosystemic shunt (CPSS), recovery after surgical CPSS attenuation is difficult to predict.

Objectives

Our aim was to build a model with plasma albumin concentration and mRNA expression levels of hepatic gene products as predictors of recovery from portosystemic shunting after surgery.

Animals

Seventy‐three client‐owned dogs referred for surgical attenuation of CPSS.

Methods

A prediction model was constructed using 2 case‐control studies of recovered and nonrecovered dogs after surgical CPSS attenuation. In the 1st study, a dog‐specific gene expression microarray analysis was used to compare mRNA expression in intraoperatively collected liver tissue between 23 recovered and 23 nonrecovered dogs. In the 2nd study, preoperative plasma albumin concentration and the expression of microarray‐selected genes were confirmed by RT‐qPCR in intraoperatively collected liver samples of 31 recovered and 31 nonrecovered dogs, including 35 dogs from the 1st study.

Results

In the 1st study, 43 genes were differently expressed in recovered and nonrecovered dogs. The mean preoperative plasma albumin concentration in recovered dogs was higher compared to nonrecovered dogs (23 and 19 g/L, respectively; P = .004). The best fitting prediction model in the 2nd study included preoperative plasma albumin concentration and intraoperative DHDHERLEC1, and LYSMD2 gene expression levels.

Conclusion and Clinical Importance

A preclinical model was constructed using preoperative plasma albumin concentration and intraoperative hepatic mRNA expression of 3 genes that were unbiasedly selected from the genome to predict recovery from portosystemic shunting after shunt ligation. Further development is essential for clinical application.

 

Canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations associated with intervertebral disc disease in 84 dogs

R. O. Schueler, G. White, R. L. Schueler, J. M. Steiner, A. Wassef

J Small Anim Pract, 59: 305-310

Objective

To determine the differences in serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity between dogs with intervertebral disc herniation and healthy control dogs.

Materials and Methods

Eighty‐four client‐owned dogs with intervertebral disc herniation, diagnosed by neurologic examination and imaging, and 18 healthy control dogs. Samples of whole blood were collected within 90 minutes of admission. Serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations were measured by a commercial immunoassay and evaluated for association with intervertebral disc herniation, signalment, neurolocalisation and the preadmission administration of glucocorticosteriods or non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs.

Results

Serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations were statistically increased in dogs with intervertebral disc herniation (P<0·01, n=38). A subgroup of dogs (19/38) with elevated canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations was re‐evaluated between 2 and 4 weeks later, and 15 had resolution of clinical signs and values less than 200 μg/L. Serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations were not significantly correlated with clinical gastrointestinal disease, neurolocalisation or the preadmission administration of corticosteroids or non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs.

Clinical significance

These results suggest that serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations are significantly elevated in dogs with intervertebral disc herniation.

 

Evaluating the effect of metronidazole plus amoxicillinclavulanate versus amoxicillinclavulanate alone in canine haemorrhagic diarrhoea: a randomised controlled trial in primary care practice

V. Ortiz, L. Klein, S. Channell, B. Simpson, B. Wright, C. Edwards, R. Gilbert, R. Day, S. L. Caddy

J Small Anim Pract, 59: 398-403

Objectives

To investigate the benefit of supplementing amoxicillin‐clavulanic acid therapy with metronidazole in dogs presenting to a primary care veterinary practice with severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea.

Materials and Methods

Prospective randomised blinded trial on dogs presenting with haemorrhagic diarrhoea of less than 3 days duration to a primary care veterinary hospital and also requiring intravenous fluid therapy. Cases were randomised to receive either metronidazole or saline, in addition to standard supportive therapy consisting of amoxicillin‐clavulanic acid, intravenous fluid therapy, buprenorphine and omeprazole. Treatment efficacy was measured by duration of hospitalisation and daily scoring of disease severity.

Results

Thirty‐four cases successfully completed the trial. There was no significant difference in hospitalisation time between treatment groups (mean for dogs receiving metronidazole was 29.6 hours and for controls was 26.3 hours) nor in daily clinical scores.

Clinical Significance

This study strongly suggests that addition of metronidazole is not an essential addition to amoxicillin‐clavulanic acid therapy for treatment of severe cases of haemorrhagic diarrhoea in dogs.

 

Histopathological frequency of feline hepatobiliary disease in the UK

W. A. Bayton, C. Westgarth, T. Scase, D. J. Price, N. H. Bexfield

J Small Anim Pract, 59: 404-410

Objectives

To determine the histopathological frequency of feline hepatobiliary diseases in the UK and to identify breed, age and gender predispositions to developing individual diseases.

Methods

Histopathology results from 1452 feline liver biopsies were assessed. A control population of microchipped cats was used for breed comparison. Data were retrospectively categorised into hepatobiliary diseases according to World Small Animal Veterinary Association standards. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine breed predispositions to the 10 most frequent diseases. Gender and age distributions were also evaluated.

Results

The most frequent diseases based on histopathology were neutrophilic cholangitis (20·5%), reactive hepatitis (20·4%), reversible hepatocellular injury (8·4%), lymphocytic cholangitis (6·8%), biliary cysts (5·7%), acute hepatitis (5·6%), haematopoietic neoplasia (5·6%), hepatocellular neoplasia (4·9%), congenital portosystemic shunt (3·8%) and cholangiocellular neoplasia (3·1%). Some previously unreported breed and age predispositions were identified.

Clinical significance

This is the first study to document the histopathological frequency of hepatobiliary diseases in a large cohort of cats in the UK, as well as novel breed and age predispositions. These data may help increase the index of suspicion of a particular disease in the absence of a biopsy‐confirmed diagnosis.

 

Effect of Enterococcus faecium SF68 on serum cobalamin and folate concentrations in healthy dogs

R. Lucena, A. B. Olmedilla, B. Blanco, M. Novales, P. J. Ginel

J Small Anim Pract, 59: 438-443

Objective

To study the effect of a 14‐day administration of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium SF68 on serum concentrations of cobalamin and folate in healthy dogs.

Materials and Methods

Thirty‐six healthy dogs were randomly allocated between probiotic and control groups. Enterococcus faecium SF68 was administered to the probiotic group for 14 days whereas the control group did not receive any product. A blood sample was taken from all dogs when starting the administration (day 1), when the administration ended (day 14) and 14 days later (day 28). Serum cobalamin and folate concentrations and the canine inflammatory bowel disease activity index scores were determined at each time point.

Results

There was a progressive reduction of mean serum cobalamin in the probiotic group during the 28‐day study, with significantly lower concentration at day 28 compared to baseline and day 14 concentrations. Moderate hypocobalaminaemia was observed in eight dogs at day 28. Probiotic administration was associated with a non‐significant increase in mean serum folate concentration at day 14, and a significant decrease at day 28 compared with day 1. The canine inflammatory bowel disease activity index score remained unaltered during the study.

Clinical Significance

Short‐term Enterococcus faecium SF68 administration caused a significant reduction of mean cobalamin concentration and moderate hypocobolaminaemia in eight of 18 dogs. Monitoring serum folate appears unnecessary because the probiotic caused a non‐significant increase that returned to baseline values after administration was discontinued.

 

CT cholangiography in dogs with gallbladder mucocoele

S. Hayakawa, K. Sato, M. Sakai, K. Kutara, K. Asano, T. Watari

J Small Anim Pract, 59: 490-495

Objectives

To summarise CT cholangiography findings in dogs with gallbladder mucocoele.

Materials and Methods

Each of 10 dogs with gallbladder mucocoele underwent CT cholangiography using meglumine iotroxate before cholecystectomy. The following structures of the biliary system were evaluated: the right and left hepatic ducts, common hepatic duct, cystic duct, common bile duct and gallbladder.

Results

The hepatic duct, cystic duct, common bile duct and gallbladder were imaged by contrast‐enhanced CT cholangiography. The passage of the contrast medium through the bile duct into the duodenum was visible in nine dogs. The curved planar reformation images of two dogs showed they had filling defects in the bile duct system. In one dog with hyperbilirubinaemia due to chronic hepatitis, the bile duct system was not completely contrast‐enhanced. Surgical exploration revealed no evidence of common bile duct obstruction in any dog.

Clinical Significance

CT cholangiography delineates the structural characteristics of the biliary system and partially estimates its patency in dogs with gallbladder mucocoele. Therefore this procedure may be useful as a preoperative screen of the bile duct system in dogs with gallbladder mucocoele.

 

Gastroprotectants in small animal veterinary practice – a review of the evidence. Part 1: cytoprotective drugs

J. Bazelle, A. Threlfall, N. Whitley

J Small Anim Pract, 59: 587-602

Diverse drugs with presumed cytoprotective effect have been used therapeutically in small animal veterinary practice for various gastro‐intestinal conditions such as oesophagitis, gastric ulceration, gastritis or chronic gastro‐enteropathies. Their efficacy has been doubted in human medicine, raising similar questions in the veterinary field. The aim of this review was to assess the current evidence on the efficacy and safety of these drugs in dogs and cats. Through a systematic review of the literature, we identified 37 articles on the use of misoprostol, sucralfate and other gastroprotectants in dogs and cats. There was evidence to support use of misoprostol in the prevention of aspirin‐induced gastroduodenal mucosal injury in dogs, and for use of sucralfate in the prevention of acid‐induced oesophagitis in cats. However, the overall quality of evidence supporting the use of these drugs in small animal patients was poor. In contrast, there was evidence of important adverse effects, especially drug interaction and gastro‐intestinal signs. We therefore recommend prescribing these drugs with caution until further well‐conducted studies reveal a useful gastroprotectant effect.

 

Evaluation of various gastrojejunostomy tube constructs for enteral support of small animal patients

Marije Risselada, DVM, PhD; Emily Griffith, PhD; Meredith Kapler, DVM; Mischa McDonald-Lynch, DVM 

J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2018 May 15;252(10):1239-124

OBJECTIVE 

To evaluate the feasibility of manufacturing gastrojejunostomy tubes from jejunostomy and gastrostomy tubes that would allow for gastric and enteral feeding of and aspiration of gastric contents from small animal patients.

DESIGN 

In vitro study.

SAMPLE 

9 gastrojejunostomy constructs.

PROCEDURES 

Commercially available gastrostomy and jejunostomy tubes were combined to create 9 constructs. Three investigators tested each construct with 4 solutions (tap water, a commercial enteral diet, and 2 canned food–water mixtures) and 3 syringe sizes for ease of injection through the gastrostomy and jejunostomy tubes and aspiration through the gastrostomy tube. Flow rates were calculated and analyzed to evaluate effects of tube diameter and syringe size for each solution.

RESULTS 

The 20F/8F, 24F/8F, 28F/8F, and 28F/10F (gastrostomy tube/jejunostomy tube) constructs allowed for injection and aspiration of all solutions. The 5F jejunostomy tubes allowed only water to be injected, whereas the 8F jejunostomy tubes did not allow injection of the canned food–water mixtures. The 20F/10F construct did not allow injection or aspiration through the gastrostomy tube, whereas the 18F/8F construct allowed injection but not aspiration through the gastrostomy tube. Faster flow rates through the gastrostomy tube were associated with larger gastrostomy tube diameter, smaller jejunostomy tube diameter, and smaller syringe size. Faster flow rates through the jejunostomy tube were associated with smaller jejunostomy tube diameter.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE 

Results suggested that homemade gastrojejunostomy constructs would allow for administration of a variety of enteral diets. Limitations to the administration and aspiration of various enteral diets as well as patient needs should be considered before a gastrojejunostomy tube combination is chosen.

 

Effects of storage conditions and duration on cobalamin concentration in serum samples from cats and dogs

Jennifer Kempf Dr med vet; Roger H. Melliger MSc, MBA; Claudia E. Reusch Dr med vet; Peter H. Kook Dr med vet

J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2018 Jun 1;252(11):1368-1371

OBJECTIVE 

To evaluate the effects of storage conditions and duration on cobalamin concentration in serum samples from dogs and cats.

DESIGN 

Experiment.

SAMPLE 

Serum samples from 9 client-owned cats and 9 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES 

Serum harvested from freshly obtained blood samples was separated into 11 aliquots/animal. One aliquot (baseline sample) was routinely transported in light-protected tubes to the laboratory for cobalamin assay; each of the remaining aliquots was stored in a refrigerator (6°C; n = 5) or at room temperature (20°C) with exposure to daylight (5) for 24, 48, 72, 96, or 120 hours. Aliquots were subsequently wrapped in aluminum foil, frozen (−20°C), and then transported to the laboratory for measurement of cobalamin concentration, all in the same run. Percentage decrease in cobalamin concentration from baseline was analyzed by means of linear mixed modeling.

RESULTS 

No differences in cobalamin values were identified between cats and dogs; therefore, data for both species were analyzed together. Median baseline serum cobalamin concentration was 424 ng/L (range, 178 to 1,880 ng/L). Values for serum samples stored with daylight exposure at room temperature were significantly lower over time than were values for refrigerated samples. Although values for refrigerated samples did not decrease significantly from baseline values over time, values for the other storage condition did; however, the mean percentage decrease for serum samples stored at room temperature was small (0.14%/h; 95% confidence interval, 0.07% to 0.21%/h).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE 

Overall, serum cobalamin concentration appeared stable for 5 days when feline and canine serum samples were refrigerated at 6°C. The effect of light and room temperature on serum cobalamin concentration, although significant, was quite small for samples stored with these exposures for the same 5-day period.

 

Nutritional management of chronic enteropathies in dogs and cats

Adam J. Rudinsky DVM, MS, John C. Rowe BS, Valerie J. Parker DVM

J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2018 Sep 1;253(5):570-578

Chronic enteropathies are a heterogeneous group of gastrointestinal disorders characterized by gas- trointestinal clinical signs that persist for at least 2

weeks. Depending on the study, chronic enteropathies and other diagnoses (eg, IBD) may include a variety of disorders and patient populations, and the incon- sistent nomenclature can result in confusing informa- tion in the literature. Regardless, achieving a correct diagnosis and classi cation of chronic enteropathy is essential for proper nutritional management. The most important step in this process is eliminating the possibility of systemic disorders as well as ruling out several primary gastrointestinal diseases, all of which may be less responsive to dietary management. The testing and diagnostic approach have been described elsewhere.1 The purpose of the information reported here is to provide an overview of dietary management options available to practicing clinicians and the data supporting use of those options for dogs and cats with gastrointestinal diseases.

 

Investigation of potential risk factors for mesenteric volvulus in military working dogs

Shane J. Andrews DVM; Todd M. Thomas DVM, MSpVM; Joe G. Hauptman DVM, MS; Bryden J. Stanley BVMS, MVetSc

J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2018 Oct 1;253(7):877-885

OBJECTIVE 

To identify risk factors for mesenteric volvulus (MV) in military working dogs (MWDs).

DESIGN 

Retrospective case-control study.

ANIMALS 

211 MWDs (54 with and 157 without MV [case and control dogs, respectively]).

PROCEDURES 

Medical records (cases and controls) and necropsy reports (cases) were reviewed. Signalment, pertinent medical and surgical history, behavior and temperament characteristics, feeding schedules, and training types were recorded. Weather patterns for regions where dogs resided were researched. Data were evaluated statistically to identify potential risk factors for MV.

RESULTS 

Risk factors significantly associated with MV included German Shepherd Dog breed (OR, 11.5), increasing age (OR, 2.0), and history of prophylactic gastropexy (OR, 65.9), other abdominal surgery (after gastropexy and requiring a separate anesthetic episode; OR, 16.9), and gastrointestinal disease (OR, 5.4). Post hoc analysis of the subset of MWDs that underwent gastropexy suggested that postoperative complications were associated with MV in these dogs but type of gastropexy and surgeon experience level were not.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE 

Data supported earlier findings that German Shepherd Dog breed and history of gastrointestinal disease were risk factors for MV. The MWDs with a history of prophylactic gastropexy or other abdominal surgery were more likely to acquire MV than were those without such history. These findings warrant further study. Despite the association between prophylactic gastropexy and MV, the authors remain supportive of this procedure to help prevent the more common disease of gastric dilatation-volvulus.

 

Likelihood and outcome of esophageal perforation secondary to esophageal foreign body in dogs

Allyson A. Sterman DVM; Kelley M. Thieman Mankin DVM, MS; Kathleen M. Ham DVM, MS; Audrey K. Cook BVM&S

J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2018 Oct 15;253(8):1053-1056

OBJECTIVE 

To determine the likelihood and outcome of esophageal perforation secondary to an esophageal foreign body (EFB) in dogs.

DESIGN 

Retrospective observational study.

ANIMALS 

125 dogs evaluated for EFB at 2 veterinary teaching hospitals from January 2005 through December 2013.

PROCEDURES 

Data were retrieved from the medical record of each dog regarding variables hypothesized to be associated with esophageal perforation, whether esophageal perforation was present, and survival to hospital discharge. Variables were examined for associations with various outcomes.

RESULTS 

Bones (55/125 [44%]) and fishhooks (37/125 [30%]) were the most common types of EFBs. Fifteen (12%) dogs had an esophageal perforation (10 with a fishhook EFB and 5 with a bone EFB). No association was identified between dog body weight and esophageal perforation. Esophageal perforation was more likely in dogs with a fishhook EFB (10/37 [27%]) versus other EFBs (5/88 [6%]; OR, 6.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 9.6). Median interval from fishhook or bone ingestion to initial evaluation was significantly longer for dogs with (12 and 96 hours, respectively) versus without (1 and 24 hours, respectively) perforation. Thirteen of 15 (87%) dogs with esophageal perforation survived to hospital discharge, including all 10 dogs with perforation secondary to fishhook ingestion. Eight survivors with esophageal perforation required no surgical intervention.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE 

Esophageal perforation was uncommon in the evaluated dogs with an EFB, and no surgical intervention was required for a large proportion of them. Fishhooks and delay between EFB ingestion and initial evaluation were risk factors for perforation.

 

Combination Chlorambucil/Firocoxib or Chlorambucil/Prednisolone Treatment for Inflammatory Colorectal Polyps in Miniature Dachshunds

Akira Murakami, DVM, Ayami Shibahashi, DVM, Ryota Iwasaki, DVM, Mifumi Kawabe, DVM, PhD, Mami Murakami, DVM, PhD, Hiroki Sakai, DVM, PhD, Takashi Mori, DVM, PhD

Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association: May/June 2018, Vol. 54, No. 3, pp. 161-166

Inflammatory colorectal polyps (ICRP), which are more commonly recognized in miniature dachshunds, are thought to represent an immune-mediated disease. This retrospective case series describes six miniature dachshunds with refractory ICRP, who were treated with chlorambucil (CLB) combined with firocoxib or prednisolone. Improvement in clinical manifestations was seen in five of the six dogs by the end of the study period; four were treated with CLB/firocoxib and one with CLB/prednisolone. One dog had nonregenerative anemia after 23 mo of treatment with CLB, but whether there was a causative relationship was unclear. No severe adverse events were observed during treatment in the remaining five dogs. CLB in combination with firocoxib or prednisolone appears to be an effective alternative treatment for ICRP in dogs. Further studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness and long-term complications of CLB treatment for ICRP in dogs.

 

A Prospective Evaluation of a Modified Belt-Loop Gastropexy in 100 Dogs with Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus

Luca Formaggini, DMV, Matteo Tommasini Degna, DMV, DECVS

Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association: September/October 2018, Vol. 54, No. 5, pp. 239-245

Gastropexy is a surgical technique performed to prevent and decrease the recurrence rate of gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV). The objective of this prospective, a descriptive cohort study on 100 client-owned dogs who were presented with GDV, is to describe a modified belt-loop gastropexy and determine its intraoperative complications and long-term efficacy.

The transversus abdominis muscle was used to make an oblique belt-loop. A seromuscular antral fold, instead of a seromuscular antral flap, was passed through the belt-loop, and then, the passed portion of the antral fold was sutured to the dissected edge of the abdominal wall. Intraoperative complications related to gastropexy were recorded, and the incidence of GDV recurrence was determined a minimum of 1 yr postoperatively via telephone with the referring veterinarians and the owners. There were no intraoperative complications related to the modified belt-loop gastropexy technique. Based on follow-up conversations, none of the dogs presented signs of GDV recurrence during the follow-up period. Based on the results, there is strong clinical evidence that a modified belt-loop gastropexy prevents recurrence of GDV in dogs surviving an acute episode.

 

Adverse food reactions: Pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis and alternatives to elimination diets

R.S. Mueller, S. Unterer

The Veterinary Journal 236 (2018) 89–95

This review summarises available information about adverse food reactions in dogs and cats. Much of the published information on the pathogenesis of adverse food reactions in these species is transferred from what is known in mice and human beings. Clinical signs affect mostly the integument and gastrointestinal system. Pruritus of the distal limbs, face, ears and ventrum is the most common cutaneous presentation in dogs, although urticaria has also been reported. In cats, all so-called ‘cutaneous reaction patterns’ may be due to adverse food reactions. The most common gastrointestinal signs in both species are diarrhoea and vomiting. An elimination diet over several weeks using a protein source and a carbohydrate source previously not fed is still the diagnostic tool of choice. Improvement on such a diet, deterioration on re-challenge with the old food and improvement again on the elimination diet confirms the diagnosis of adverse food reaction, whereas alternative tests of blood, serum, saliva and hair have been found to be unsatisfactory. Patch testing with food antigens has been recommended as an aid to choose the elimination diet ingredients, since it has a reasonable negative predictability and likelihood ratio, but is laborious and costly.

 

Prevalence of enteropathogens in cats with and without diarrhea in four different management models for unowned cats in the southeast United States

L.A.Andersen, J.K.Levy, C.M.McManus, S.P.McGorray, C.M.Leutenegger, J.Piccione, L.K.Blackwelder, S.J.Tucker

The Veterinary Journal 236 (2018) 49–55

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of enteropathogens in cats with and without diarrhea in four different models for managing unowned cats: short-term animal shelter, long-term sanctuary, home-based foster care, and trap-neuter-return. Fecal samples from 482 cats, approximately half of the cats with normal fecal consistency and half with diarrhea, were tested by zinc sulfate centrifugation and by real-time PCR for a panel of enteropathogens.

At least one enteropathogen of feline or zoonotic importance was detected in a majority of cats, regardless of management model. For most enteropathogens, the presence or absence of diarrhea was not significantly associated with infection, the exceptions being Tritrichomonas foetus in sanctuary cats with diarrhea (26%) and normal fecal consistency (10%), respectively (P ≤ 0.04), and feline coronavirus in foster cats (80% and 58%) (P ≤ 0.001). The types of enteropathogens detected were related to the type of management model, e.g., viral and protozoal infections were most common in shelters, sanctuaries, and foster homes (confinement systems), whereas helminth infections were most common in trap-neuter-return programs (free-roaming cats).

These results suggest that management practices for unowned cats are inadequate for control of enteropathogens and that the presence of diarrhea is a poor indicator of enteropathogen carriage. Risk-management strategies to reduce transmission to people and other animals should focus on sanitation, housing, compliance with preventive care guidelines, periodic surveillance, response to specific enteropathogens, humane population management of free-roaming community cats, public health education, and minimizing the duration and number of cats in mass confinement.

 

Serum α1-proteinase inhibitor concentrations in dogs with exocrine pancreatic disease, chronic hepatitis or proteinuric chronic kidney disease

R.M.Heilmann, N.Grützner, J.A.Hokamp, J.A.Lidbury, P.G.Xenoulis, J.S.Suchodolski, M.B.Nabity, R.Cianciolo, J.M.Steiner

The Veterinary Journal 236 (2018) 68–71

Serum canine α1-proteinase inhibitor (cα1-PI) concentrations were evaluated in dogs with pancreatitis (n = 24), exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI; n = 29), chronic hepatitis (CH; n = 11) or proteinuric chronic kidney disease (CKD-P; n = 61) to determine whether systemic proteinase/proteinase-inhibitor balance is altered in these conditions. Dogs with CKD-P had significantly lower cα1-PI concentrations than dogs with pancreatitis, EPI or CH; 16% of dogs with CKD-P had serum cα1-PI concentrations below the reference interval. Serum and urine cα1-PI concentrations were inversely correlated in dogs with CKD-P, but not in dogs with CH. This suggests that renal loss of cα1-PI contributes to decreased serum concentrations in dogs with CKD-P, while hepatic cα1-PI synthesis with CH either is not compromised or is counterbalanced by extrahepatic production.

 

Relationship between ultrasonographic and histopathological measurements of small intestinal wall layers in fresh cat cadavers

M.Martinez, F.J.Pallares, M.Soler, A.Agut

The Veterinary Journal 237 (2018) 1–8

The relationship between histological and ultrasonographic thickness of the intestinal wall and its layers in cats is unknown so far. The aims of this study were to establish the relationship between ultrasonographic measurements in the transverse and longitudinal planes of the small intestine and to establish the agreement between ultrasonographic and histologic thickness of the overall intestinal wall and layers in cat cadavers. Seventeen adult cats were euthanased for reasons unrelated to gastrointestinal tract disease and ultrasonography was performed immediately after death using a high-frequency linear transducer. Ultrasound images of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and distal ileum were acquired in both the longitudinal and transverse planes. Small intestinal samples were collected close to where ultrasonographic images were obtained, fixed in formalin, and histological sections were obtained. Measurements of the intestinal layers and the overall wall thickness were performed on the ultrasonographic images and histological sections.

No statistical differences were found between the ultrasonographic measurements of thickness obtained in the transverse and longitudinal planes except for the distal ileum (P < 0.05). There was good agreement between the ultrasonographic and histologic measurements of the overall wall thickness and the layers of the different intestinal segments except at the submucosa and muscularis of the duodenum. Immediate postmortem ultrasonographic and histological thickness measurements of the different layers of the small intestine obtained in this study could serve as a reference for ultrasonographic scans and histological samples in cats.

 

Shelter-housed cats show no evidence of faecal shedding of canine parvovirus DNA

P.Byrne, J.A.Beatty, J.Šlapeta, S.W.Corley, R.E.Lyons, L.McMichael, M.T.Kyaw-Tanner, P.T.Dung, N.Decaro, J.Meers, V.R.Barrs

The Veterinary Journal 239 (2018) 54–58

Canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) are deoxyriboncucleic acid (DNA) viruses in the taxon Carnivore protoparvovirus 1. Exposure of cats to either CPV or FPV results in productive infection and faecal shedding of virus. Asymptomatic shedding of CPVs by one-third of shelter-housed cats in a UK study suggests that cats may be an important reservoir for parvoviral disease in dogs. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of faecal shedding of CPVs in asymptomatic shelter-housed cats in Australia. Faecal samples (n = 218) were collected from cats housed in three shelters receiving both cats and dogs, in Queensland and NSW. Molecular testing for Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 DNA was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by DNA sequencing of the VP2 region to differentiate CPV from FPV.

Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 DNA was detected in only four (1.8%, 95% confidence interval 0.49–4.53%) faecal samples from a single shelter. Sequencing identified all four positive samples as FPV. Faecal shedding of CPV by shelter-cats was not detected in this study.

While the potential for cross-species transmission of CPV between cats and dogs is high, this study found no evidence of a role for cats in maintaining CPV in cat and dog populations through faecal shedding in the regions tested.