Analysis of c-KIT exon 11 mutations in canine gastrointestinal stromal tumours

M. Takanosu,  S. Amano, Y. Kagawa

The aim of this study was to determine the type and frequency of c-KIT exon 11 mutations in caninegastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) and investigate the association between the c-KIT mutation statusand KIT immunohistochemical staining pattern. Mutations in exon 11 ofc-KIT were examined in 46 formalinfixed paraffin-embedded canine GISTs using PCR of genomic DNA and reverse transcription-PCR (RTPCR) of cDNA.Exon 11 c-KIT mutations were detected in 15/46 (32.6%) cases by conventional PCR and 34/46 (73.9%)cases by RT-PCR; the mutation detection rate was significantly higher for RT-PCR (P = 0.004, Fisher's exacttest). Ten different mutations, including deletion, internal tandem duplication and point mutations, wereidentified by RT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry was performed using an anti-KIT antibody; diffuse KIT staining was detected in the tumour cell cytoplasm in 32/46 (69.6%) cases and partial or stippled cytoplasmicstaining of KIT was observed in 14/46 (30.4%) cases. Neither pattern was significantly associated withc-KIT exon 11 mutation status (P = 1.000, chi-square test). These data indicate that c-KIT exon 11 mutations occur frequently in canine GISTs, similar to human GISTs; however, there is no association betweenc-KIT mutations and the KIT expression pattern in canine GISTs. This study suggests that RT-PCR is moresensitive than conventional PCR for the detection of c-KIT mutations in canine GISTs.

(The Veterinary Journal 207 (2016) 118-123)



Clinical Characteristics of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in 19 cats from a Single Institution (1980–2013)

Staci A. Goussev, DVM; Sharon Anne Center, DVM: John F. Randolph, DVM; Aarti Kathrani,BVetMed, PhD, MR CVS; Brian P. Butler, DVM , PhD; Sea n P. McDonough, DVM, PhD

Clinical featu res of feline hepatocellular carcinoma (HCA) have been poorly characterized. In this retrospective study, wedescribe the signalment, clinical features, clinicopathologic parameters, imaging characterist ics, hepatic mass size andlobe distribution, concurrent disorders, and survival in 19 cats with HCA. HCA is a rare neoplasm in elderly cats oftenassociated with weight loss, hyporexia, and increased hepatic transaminase activities. Concurrent disorders (e.g.,hyperthyroidism, inflammatory bowel disease, cholangiohepatitis, copper-associated hepatopathy) often confoundedinterpretation of clinical and clinicopathologic findings; 42% of HCA were incidentally identified. Although an abdominalmass was palpated in only 21% of cats, many cats had masses identified on ultrasonographic imaging with 47% havinglesions .4cm. Tumors were nearly equally distributed between right and left liver lobes, and two cats had HCA inmultiple liver lobes. Median survival of eight cats diagnosed antemortem was 1.7 (0.6 to 6.5) yr. Median survival of sixcats undergoing HCA surgical resection was 2.4 (1.0 to 6.5) yr with two cats still alive at time of manuscript submission.Following surgical resection, one cat treated with carboplatin survived 4 yr. Two cats with HCA diagnosed antemortemwithout surgical resection survived for 0.6 and 1 yr.

(J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2016; 52:36-41. DOI 10.5326/JAAHA-MS-6289)


Short-term clinical outcome of laparoscopic liver biopsy in dogs: 106 cases (2003–2013)

Heidi L. McDevitt DVM; Philipp D. Mayhew BVM&S; Michelle A. Giuffrida VMD; Dottie C. Brown DVM, PhD ; William T. N. Culp VMD; Jeffrey J. Runge DVM

To describe the operative technique, complications, and conversion ratesfor laparoscopic liver biopsy (LLB) in dogs and evaluate short-term clinicaloutcome for dogs that underwent the procedure.

Retrospective case series.

106 client-owned dogs.

Medical records were reviewed to identify dogs that underwent an LLB with asingle-port or multiport technique at either of 2 veterinary teaching hospitalsfrom August 2003 to September 2013. Demographic and laboratory data,preoperative administration of fresh frozen plasma, procedural and diagnosticinformation, intraoperative complications, and survival to discharge wererecorded. The LLB specimens were obtained with 5-mm laparoscopic biopsycup forceps and a grasp-and-twist technique.

Prior to surgery, 25 of 94 (27%) dogs had coagulopathy (prothrombin timeor partial thromboplastin time greater than the facility reference ranges,regardless of platelet count). Twenty-one dogs were thrombocytopenic, 14had ascites, and 14 received fresh frozen plasma transfusion before surgery.In all cases, biopsy samples collected were of sufficient size and qualityfor histopathologic evaluation. Two dogs required conversion to an openlaparotomy because of splenic laceration during initial port placement. Onehundred one of 106 dogs survived to discharge; 5 were euthanized duringhospitalization owing to progression of liver disease and poor prognosis.

Single-port and multiport LLB were found to be effective, minimally invasivediagnostic techniques with a low rate of complications. Results suggested LLBcan be safely used in dogs with underlying coagulopathies and advanced liverdisease.

(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2016;248:83-90)


Integration of a physical training program in a weight loss plan for overweight pet dogs

Anne D. Vitger DVM; Bente M. Stallknecht MD, PhD, DMSc; Dorte H. Nielsen DVM, PhD; Charlotte R. Bjornvad DVM, PhD

To investigate whether a controlled physical training plan for overweight dogsduring a weight loss program would improve cardiorespiratory fitness andbetter preserve lean body mass, compared with results for dogs undergoing aweight loss program based on caloric restriction alone.DESIGNProspective, nonrandomized clinical study.

19 client-owned overweight or obese dogs.

All dogs were fed the same calorie-restricted diet rationed to achieve aweight loss rate of 1% to 2%/wk for 12 weeks. The fitness-and-diet (FD)group participated in a training program that included underwater and landbased treadmill exercise 3 times/wk. The diet-only (DO) group had no changein exercise routines. Daily activity before and during the intervention wasrecorded by accelerometry. Before and after intervention, heart rate duringexercise was recorded to assess cardiovascular fitness, and body compositionwas analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Differences betweengroups were evaluated with t tests and multiple regression analysis.

Mean weight loss was 13.9% and 12.9% for the FD and DO groups, respectively(n = 8 dogs/group that completed the study). Mean accelerometer countsduring intervention were 13% higher than baseline counts for the FD group.Heart rate during exercise declined after intervention in both groups. Leanbody mass was preserved in the FD group and lost in the DO group duringintervention.

The controlled exercise plan used with a dietary weight loss programprevented loss of lean body mass in dogs. This finding supports inclusion ofcontrolled physical training for obesity management in dogs.

(J Am Vet MedAssoc 2016;248:174-182)


Nutritional Considerations for Dogs and Cats with Liver Disease

Rebecca D. Norton , DVM; Catherine E. Lenox, DVM, DACVN;  Paul Manino, DVM, DACVIM; James C. Vulgamott, DVM, DACVIM

The goals of nutritional management of liver disease in the dog and cat are directed at treating the clinicalmanifestations as opposed to treating the underlying cause. Specifically, the clinician strives to avoid overwhelming theremaining metabolic capacities of the damaged liver while providing sufficient nutrients for regeneration. A briefoverview of liver diseases and associated clinical signs encountered in the dog and cat and a review of specific nutrientsare discussed as well as amounts and sources of nutrients recommended to meet nutritional goals in the diseased liver.

(J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2016; 52:1-7. DOI 10.5326/JAAHA-MS-6292R2)


Gastric dilatation volvulus: aretrospective study of 203 dogs with ventral midline gastropexy

B. Ullmann, N. Seehaus, S. Hungerbühler,  A. Meyer-Lindenberg

To evaluate the recurrence rate of gastric dilatation volvulus and the incidence of complications in subsequent coeliotomies following ventral midline gastropexy.

The medical records of dogs treated for gastric dilatation volvulus by ventral midline gastropexy were retrospectively reviewed. Owners were contacted and invited to complete a questionnaireand to return to the clinic for ultrasonographic and radiographic follow-up.

The questionnaire was completed by 203 owners 2 to 123 months postoperatively, 24 ofwhom attended the follow-up examination. Of the 203 dogs, 13 (6·4%) underwent subsequent ventralmidline coeliotomy and none developed complications related to the gastropexy site. In 23 of the24 re-evaluated dogs, the stomach was closely associated with the abdominal on radiography and/or ultrasound. The recurrence rate for clinical signs of gastric dilatation or gastric dilatation volvulusafter ventral midline gastropexy was 6·4%.

This study shows that the recurrence of gastric dilatation volvulus after ventralmidline gastropexy is low and adhesion of the stomach to the abdominal wall is persistent in almostall dogs that were re-examined. The gastropexy site did not appear to interfere with subsequentcoeliotomy

(Journal of Small Animal Practice (2016) 57, 18-22)


Morphology of splenocaval congenital portosystemic shunts in dogs and cats

R. N. White and A. T. Parry

To describe the anatomy of congenital portosystemic shunts involving the splenic veincommunicating with the caudal vena cava at the level of the epiploic foramen.

A retrospective review of a consecutive series of dogs and cats managed forcongenital portosystemic shunts.

Ninety-eight dogs and eight cats met the inclusion criteria of a congenital portosystemicshunt involving the splenic vein communicating with the prehepatic caudal vena cava plus recordedintra-operative mesenteric portovenography or computed tomography angiography and gross observations at surgery. All cases (both dogs and cats) had a highly consistent shunt that involved a distended gastrosplenic vein that communicated with the caudal vena cava at the level of the epiploicforamen via an anomalous left gastric vein.

The morphology of the shunt type described appeared to be a result of an abnormalcommunication between the left gastric vein and the caudal vena cava and the subsequent development of preferential blood flow through an essentially normal portal venous system. The abnormalcommunication (shunt) was through the left gastric vein and not the splenic vein, as might have beenexpected. This information may help with surgical planning in cases undergoing shunt closure surgery.

(Journal of Small Animal Practice (2016) 57, 28-32)


Serum and fecal canine α1-proteinase inhibitor concentrations reflect the severity of intestinal crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation in dogs

Romy M. Heilmann, Nolie K. Parnell, Niels Grützner, Joanne Mansell, Nora Berghoff, Stefan Schellenberg, Claudia E. Reusch, Jan S. Suchodolski, Jörg M. Steiner

Gastrointestinal (GI) protein loss, due to lymphangiectasia or chronic inflammation, can be challengingto diagnose. This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of serum and fecal canine α1-proteinase inhibitor (cα1PI) concentrations to detect crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation in dogs. Serum and fecalcα1PI concentrations were measured in 120 dogs undergoing GI tissue biopsies, and were compared betweendogs with and without crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for dichotomous outcomes. Serial serum cα1PI concentrations were also evaluated in 12 healthy corticosteroidtreated dogs.Serum cα1PI and albumin concentrations were significantly lower in dogs with crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation than in those without (both P < 0.001), and more severe lesions were associated withlower serum cα1PI concentrations, higher 3 days-mean fecal cα1PI concentrations, and lower serum/fecal cα1PI ratios. Serum and fecal cα1PI, and their ratios, distinguished dogs with moderate or severeGI crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation from dogs with only mild or none such lesions with moderate sensitivity (56-92%) and specificity (67-81%). Serum cα1PI concentrations increased during corticosteroidadministration. We conclude that serum and fecal α1PI concentrations reflect the severity of intestinalcrypt abscesses/lacteal dilation in dogs. Due to its specificity for the GI tract, measurement of fecal cα1PIappears to be superior to serum cα1PI for diagnosing GI protein loss in dogs. In addition, the serum/fecal cα1PI ratio has an improved accuracy in hypoalbuminemic dogs, but serum cα1PI concentrationsshould be carefully interpreted in corticosteroid-treated dogs.

(The Veterinary Journal 207 (2016) 131-139)