Hepatic concentrations of copper and other metals in dogs with and without chronic hepatitis

Journal of Small Animal Practice (2016) 57, 703-709

Y.Cedeño, M.López-Alonso and M.Miranda

OBJECTIVES:Defects in copper metabolism have been described in several dog breeds, and recently, it hasbeen suggested that changes in other essential trace elements could be involved in the pathogenesisof hepatic disease. This study measured hepatic copper accumulation and its interactions with otheressential trace and toxic metals in dogs diagnosed with chronic hepatitis.

METHODS:Liver samples of 20 chronic hepatitis and 20 healthy dogs were collected. Samples were aciddigested, and essential metals (cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molibdenum, selenium and zinc) andtoxic metals (arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead) were analysed by inductively-coupled plasma massspectrometry.

RESULTS:Copper concentrations were significantly higher in dogs affected by hepatic disease than incontrols. Dogs having chronic hepatitis with liver copper concentration greater than 100 mg/kg wetweight showed statistically higher cobalt, manganese and zinc concentrations than dogs having chronichepatitis with liver copper concentrations less than 100 mg/kg wet weight and controls. Toxic metalconcentrations were low - in all cases below the threshold associated with toxicity in dogs.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE:Dogs with chronic hepatitis not only have increased concentrations of copper in theliver but also increased concentrations of cobalt, manganese and zinc; measurement of these elementsmay perhaps aid in diagnosis of liver disease in dogs.


Multiple gastric erosions diagnosed by means of capsule endoscopy in a dog

JAVMA October 15, 2016, Vol. 249, No. 8, Pages 926-930

Brian T. Hardy DVM; Jessica Gentile-Solomon DVM; Jeffrey A. Solomon MD, MBA 

CASE DESCRIPTION A 6-year-old spayed female Golden Retriever was evaluated for a 2-week history of progressive hyporexia, signs of abdominal pain, and weight loss.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination findings included mild signs of pain on palpation of the cranial part of the abdomen and a body condition score of 4 (scale, 1 to 9). A CBC revealed mild microcytosis and hypochromasia; results of serum biochemical analysis were within the respective reference ranges, and abdominal ultrasonography revealed no abnormalities. Capsule endoscopy was performed, and numerous gastric erosions and hemorrhages were detected, with rare dilated lacteals in the proximal aspect of the small intestine.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Treatment was initiated with omeprazole and sucralfate for 6 weeks, and the dog was transitioned to a novel protein diet. Capsule endoscopy was repeated at the end of the initial treatment course and revealed overall improvement, with a few small erosions remaining; medical treatment was continued for an additional 2 weeks. At last follow-up 9 months after treatment ended, the dog was clinically normal.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Capsule endoscopy was useful for initial detection and subsequent reevaluation of gastrointestinal lesions in this patient without a need for sedation or anesthesia. Information obtained in the follow-up evaluation was valuable in identifying a need to extend the duration of medical treatment.


Fecal S100A12 concentration predicts a lack of response to treatment in dogs affected with chronic enteropathy

Vet J 215 (2016) 96-100

Romy M. Heilmann, Maria Volkmann, Cristiane C. Otoni, Niels Grützner,Barbara Kohn, Albert E. Jergens, Jörg M. Steiner

S100A12 is a potential biomarker of gastrointestinal inflammation in dogs and fecal S100A12 concentrations are correlated with disease severity and outcome. The aim of the present study was to investigatewhether there was any association between pre-treatment fecal S100A12 concentrations in dogs affected with chronic enteropathy (CE) and the response to treatment. Dogs affected with CE were recruitedinto the study and were classified as antibiotic-responsive diarrhea (ARD; n = 9), food-responsive diarrhea (FRD; n = 30) or idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; n = 25). They were also grouped basedon their response to treatment as complete remission (n = 35), partial response (n = 25) or no response(n = 4). Fecal S100A12 concentrations, measured by ELISA, were elevated in dogs affected with IBD compared with those from dogs affected with FRD (P = 0.010) or ARD (P = 0.025). Dogs with IBD that did notrespond to treatment (n = 4) had significantly greater fecal S100A12 concentrations than dogs in complete remission (P = 0.009). Measurement of fecal S100A12 at the time of diagnosis discriminated betweendogs with IBD that were refractory to therapy (≥2700 ng/g fecal S100A12) from those with at least a partialresponse (<2700 ng/g fecal S100A12), with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 76%. These preliminary results suggest that testing of fecal S100A12 may be useful for predicting the lack of response totreatment in dogs affected with CE. The utility of serial fecal S100A12 measurements for monitoring dogsundergoing treatment for CE warrants further investigation.


Comparison of 3 handling techniques for endoscopically obtained gastric and duodenal biopsy specimens: a prospective study in dogs and cats

 J Vet Intern Med 2016;30:1014-1021

G.C. Ruiz, E. Reyes-Gomez, E.J. Hall, and V. Freiche

Background: Limited evidence exists in the literature regarding whether a specific mount is preferable to use for processing endoscopically obtained gastrointestinal biopsy specimens.

Hypothesis/Objectives: To compare 3 methods of handling endoscopically obtained gastrointestinal biopsy specimensfrom collection to laboratory processing and to determine if any technique produced superior results.

Animals: Twenty-three dogs and cats presented for gastrointestinal signs.

Methods: Prospective study of dogs and cats presented with gastrointestinal signs to a veterinary teaching referral hospitalwhich underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Biopsy specimens were taken from the stomach and duodenum and submitted to the laboratory using 3 techniques: mounted on a cucumber slice, mounted on a moisturized synthetic foam sponge,and floating free in formalin. The techniques were compared with regard to the specimens' width, orientation, presence ofartifacts, and pathologist's confidence in diagnosis.

Results: Twenty-three patients were included, with a total of 528 biopsies collected. Specimens on cucumber slice and onsponge were significantly wider (P < .001 and P = .001, respectively) compared to those floating free in formalin (mean widthof 3.81 versus 3.31 and 2.52 mm, respectively). However, specimens on synthetic sponge had significantly fewer artifacts compared to those on cucumber slice (P = .05) and those floating free in formalin (P = .02). Confidence in the diagnosis also wassuperior with the sponge technique over floating free specimens (P = .002).

Conclusions and Clinical Importance: The use of mounted gastrointestinal biopsy specimens was superior over the use ofspecimens floating free in formalin. This technique improved the quality of the specimens and the pathologist's confidence intheir histopathologic interpretation.


Campylobacter species and neutrophlic inflammatory bowel disease in cats

J Vet Intern Med 2016;30:996-1001

C.L. Maunder, Z.F. Reynolds, L. Peacock, E.J. Hall, M.J. Day, and T.A. Cogan

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common cause of signs of gastrointestinal disease in cats. A subset ofcats with IBD has neutrophilic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa.

Hypothesis: Neutrophilic enteritis in cats is associated with mucosal invasion by microorganisms, and specifically Campylobacter spp.

Animals: Seven cats with neutrophilic IBD and 8 cats with lymphoplasmacytic IBD.

Methods: Retrospective review of duodenal biopsy specimens that were collected endoscopically for histologic examination. Cases were identified and selected by searching the histopathology archive for cats with a diagnosis of neutrophilic andlymphoplasmacytic IBD. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) targeting either all eubacteria or individual Campylobacterspp. was performed on archived samples. Neutrophils were detected on the same samples using a FISH probe for neutrophilelastase.

Results: Campylobacter coli was present in (6/7) cats with neutrophilic IBD and in (1/8) cats with lymphoplasmacyticIBD (P = .009). Cats with neutrophilic IBD had significantly higher number of C. coli (median bacteria 0.7/hpf) in themucosa than cats with lymphoplasmacytic IBD (median bacteria 0/hpf) (P = 0.002). Colocalization of neutrophils and C. coliwas demonstrated, with C. coli closer to the neutrophils than any other bacteria (P < .001).

Conclusions and clinical importance: Identification of C. coli associated with neutrophilic inflammation suggests thatC. coli is able either to produce compounds which stimulate neutrophils or to induce feline intestinal cells to produce neutrophil chemoattractants. This association should allow a directed therapeutic approach in cats with neutrophilic IBD, potentially improving outcome and reducing any zoonotic risk.


Use of serum microRNAs as biomarker for hepatobiliary diseases in dogs

J Vet Intern Med 2016;30:1816-1823

K.Dirksen, T. Verzijl, G.C. Grinwis, R.P. Favier, L.C. Penning, I.A. Burgener, L.J. van der Laan,H. Fieten, and B. Spee

Background: Current biochemical indicators cannot discriminate between parenchymal, biliary, vascular, and neoplastichepatobiliary diseases. MicroRNAs are promising new biomarkers for hepatobiliary disease in humans and dogs.

Objective: To measure serum concentrations of an established group of microRNAs in dogs and to investigate theirconcentrations in various types of hepatobiliary diseases.

Animals: Forty-six client-owned dogs with an established diagnosis of hepatobiliary disease and stored serum samplesand eleven client-owned healthy control Labrador Retrievers.

Methods: Retrospective study. Medical records of dogs with parenchymal, biliary, vascular, or neoplastic hepatobiliarydiseases and control dogs were reviewed. Concentrations of miR-21, miR-122, miR-126, miR-148a, miR-200c, and miR-222were quantified in serum by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Results: No different microRNA concentrations were found in the adenoma and congenital portosystemic shunt groups.In all other diseases, miR-122 concentrations were elevated with the highest concentration in the mucocele group (267-fold,CI: 40-1,768, P < .001). In dogs with biliary diseases, miR-21 and miR-222 were only increased in dogs with mucoceles (26-fold, CI: 5-141, P = .005 and 13-fold, CI: 2-70, P = .025, respectively). Uniquely increased microRNAs were found in thehepatocellular carcinoma group (miR-200c, 35-fold increase, CI: 3-382, P = .035) and the chronic hepatitis group (miR-126,22-fold increase, CI: 5-91, P = .002).

Conclusions and Clinical Importance: A microRNA panel consisting of miR-21, miR-122, miR-126, miR-200c, and miR-222can distinguish between parenchymal, biliary, and neoplastic hepatobiliary diseases. Serum microRNA profiling is a promisingnew tool that might be a valuable addition to conventional diagnostics to help diagnose various hepatobiliary diseases in dogs.